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2004 SPECIAL SESSION I

041851252
HOUSE BILL NO. 5018
Offered April 6, 2004
A BILL to amend and reenact 58.1-302, 58.1-321, 58.1-322, 58.1-391, 58.1-392, 58.1-402, 58.1-441, 58.1-603, 58.1-604, 58.1-604.1, 58.1-605, 58.1-606, 58.1-609.3, 58.1-611.1, 58.1-614, 58.1-615, 58.1-627, 58.1-628, 58.1-639, 58.1-801, 58.1-803, 58.1-807, 58.1-808, 58.1-901, 58.1-1001, and 58.1-3833 of the Code of Virginia, to amend the Code of Virginia by adding sections numbered 58.1-390.1, 58.1-390.2, and 58.1-393.1, and by adding in Article 9 of Chapter 3 of Title 58.1 sections numbered 58.1-394.1, 58.1-394.2, and 58.1-395, and to repeal 58.1-390 and 58.1-394 of the Code of Virginia, relating to revenues for appropriation throughout the Commonwealth and its localities as part of the Tax Reform Compromise Act of 2004.
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Patron-- Parrish
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Referred to Committee on Finance
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Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Virginia:

1. That 58.1-302, 58.1-321, 58.1-322, 58.1-391, 58.1-392, 58.1-402, 58.1-441, 58.1-603, 58.1-604, 58.1-604.1, 58.1-605, 58.1-606, 58.1-609.3, 58.1-611.1, 58.1-614, 58.1-615, 58.1-627, 58.1-628, 58.1-639, 58.1-801, 58.1-803, 58.1-807, 58.1-808, 58.1-901, 58.1-1001, and 58.1-3833 of the Code of Virginia are amended and reenacted, and that the Code of Virginia is amended by adding sections numbered 58.1-390.1, 58.1-390.2, and 58.1-393.1, and by adding in Article 9 of Chapter 3 of Title 58.1 sections numbered 58.1-394.1, 58.1-394.2, and 58.1-395 as follows:

58.1-302. Definitions.

For the purpose of this chapter and unless otherwise required by the context:

"Affiliated" means two or more corporations subject to Virginia income taxes whose relationship to each other is such that (i) one corporation owns at least eighty percent of the voting stock of the other or others or (ii) at least eighty percent of the voting stock of two or more corporations is owned by the same interests.

"Compensation" means wages, salaries, commissions and any other form of remuneration paid or accrued to employees for personal services.

"Corporation" includes associations, joint stock companies and insurance companies.

"Domicile" means the permanent place of residence of a taxpayer and the place to which he intends to return even though he may actually reside elsewhere. In determining domicile, consideration may be given to the applicant's expressed intent, conduct, and all attendant circumstances including, but not limited to, financial independence, business pursuits, employment, income sources, residence for federal income tax purposes, marital status, residence of parents, spouse and children, if any, leasehold, sites of personal and real property owned by the applicant, motor vehicle and other personal property registration, residence for purposes of voting as proven by registration to vote, if any, and such other factors as may reasonably be deemed necessary to determine the person's domicile.

"Foreign source income" means:

1. Interest, other than interest derived from sources within the United States;

2. Dividends, other than dividends derived from sources within the United States;

3. Rents, royalties, license, and technical fees from property located or services performed without the United States or from any interest in such property, including rents, royalties, or fees for the use of or the privilege of using without the United States any patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, good will, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like properties;

4. Gains, profits, or other income from the sale of intangible or real property located without the United States; and

5. The amount of an individual's share of net income attributable to a foreign source qualified business unit of an electing small business corporation (S corporation). For purposes of this subsection, qualified business unit shall be defined by 989 of the Internal Revenue Code, and the source of such income shall be determined in accordance with 861, 862 and 987 of the Internal Revenue Code.

In determining the source of "foreign source income," the provisions of 861, 862, and 863 of the Internal Revenue Code shall be applied except as specifically provided in subsection 5 above.

"Income and deductions from Virginia sources" includes:

1. Items of income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to:

a. The ownership of any interest in real or tangible personal property in Virginia;

b. A business, trade, profession or occupation carried on in Virginia; or

c. Prizes paid by the Virginia Lottery Department, and gambling winnings from wagers placed or paid at a location in Virginia.

2. Income from intangible personal property, including annuities, dividends, interest, royalties and gains from the disposition of intangible personal property to the extent that such income is from property employed by the taxpayer in a business, trade, profession, or occupation carried on in Virginia.

"Individual" means all natural persons whether married or unmarried and fiduciaries acting for natural persons, but not fiduciaries acting for trusts or estates.

"Intangible expenses and costs" means:

1. Expenses, losses and costs for, related to, or in connection directly or indirectly with the direct or indirect acquisition, use, maintenance or management, ownership, sale, exchange, lease, transfer, or any other disposition of intangible property to the extent such amounts are allowed as deductions or costs in determining taxable income;

2. Losses related to or incurred in connection directly or indirectly with factoring transactions or discounting transactions;

3. Royalty, patent, technical and copyright fees;

4. Licensing fees; and

5. Other similar expenses and costs.

"Intangible property" means patents, patent applications, trade names, trademarks, service marks, copyrights and similar types of intangible assets.

"Interest expenses and costs" means amounts directly or indirectly allowed as deductions under Section 163 of the Internal Revenue Code for purposes of determining taxable income under the Internal Revenue Code to the extent such expenses and costs are directly or indirectly for, related to, or in connection with the direct or indirect acquisition, use, maintenance, management, ownership, sale, exchange, lease, transfer, or disposition of intangible property.

"Nonresident estate or trust" means an estate or trust which is not a resident estate or trust.

"Related entity" means:

1. A stockholder who is an individual, or a member of the stockholder's family enumerated in Section 318 of the Internal Revenue Code, if the stockholder and the members of the stockholder's family own, directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, in the aggregate, at least 50 percent of the value of the taxpayer's outstanding stock;

2. A stockholder, or a stockholder's partnership, limited liability company, estate, trust or corporation, if the stockholder and the stockholder's partnerships, limited liability companies, estates, trusts and corporations own directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, in the aggregate, at least 50 percent of the value of the taxpayer's outstanding stock; or

3. A corporation, or a party related to the corporation in a manner that would require an attribution of stock from the corporation to the party or from the party to the corporation under the attribution rules of Section 318 of the Internal Revenue Code, if the taxpayer owns, directly, indirectly, beneficially or constructively, at least 50 percent of the value of the corporation's outstanding stock. The attribution rules of Section 318 of the Internal Revenue Code shall apply for purposes of determining whether the ownership requirements of this subdivision have been met.

"Related member" means a person that, with respect to the taxpayer during all or any portion of the taxable year, is a related entity, a component member as defined in Section 1563(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, or is a person to or from whom there is attribution of stock ownership in accordance with Section 1563(e) of the Internal Revenue Code.

"Resident" applies only to natural persons and includes, for the purpose of determining liability for the taxes imposed by this chapter upon the income of any taxable year every person domiciled in Virginia at any time during the taxable year and every other person who, for an aggregate of more than 183 days of the taxable year, maintained his place of abode within Virginia, whether domiciled in Virginia or not. The word "resident" shall not include any member of the United States Congress who is domiciled in another state.

"Resident estate or trust" means:

1. The estate of a decedent who at his death was domiciled in the Commonwealth;

2. A trust created by will of a decedent who at his death was domiciled in the Commonwealth;

3. A trust created by or consisting of property of a person domiciled in the Commonwealth; or

4. A trust or estate which is being administered in the Commonwealth.

"Sales" means all gross receipts of the corporation not allocated under 58.1-407, except the sale or other disposition of intangible property shall include only the net gain realized from the transaction.

"State" means for purposes of Article 10 of this chapter any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, and any foreign country.

"Trust" or "estate" means a trust or estate, or a fiduciary thereof, which is required to file a fiduciary income tax return under the laws of the United States.

"Virginia fiduciary adjustment" means the net amount of the applicable modifications described in 58.1-322 (including subsection E thereof if the estate or trust is a beneficiary of another estate or trust) which relate to items of income, gain, loss or deduction of an estate or trust. The fiduciary adjustment shall not include the modification in subsection D of 58.1-322, except that the amount of state income taxes excluded from federal taxable income shall be included. The fiduciary adjustment shall also include the modification in subsection D of 58.1-322, regarding the deduction for the purchase of a prepaid tuition contract or contribution to a savings trust account.

58.1-321. Exemptions and exclusions.

A. No tax levied pursuant to 58.1-320 is imposed, nor any return required to be filed by:

1. A single individual where the Virginia adjusted gross income for such taxable year is less than $3,000 for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1987; and less than $5,000 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1987, through December 31, 2004; and less than $7,000 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2005;

2. An individual and spouse if their combined Virginia adjusted gross income for such taxable year is less than $3,000 for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1987; and less than $8,000 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1987, through December 31, 2004; and less than $14,000 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2005 (or one-half of such amount in the case of a married individual filing a separate return).

For the purposes of this section "Virginia adjusted gross income" means federal adjusted gross income for the taxable years with the modifications specified in 58.1-322 B, 58.1-322 C and the additional deductions allowed under 58.1-322 D 2 b and D 5.

B. Persons in the armed forces of the United States stationed on military or naval reservations within Virginia who are not domiciled in Virginia shall not be held liable to income taxation for compensation received from military or naval service.

58.1-322. Virginia taxable income of residents.

A. The Virginia taxable income of a resident individual means his federal adjusted gross income for the taxable year, which excludes combat pay for certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States as provided in 112 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and with the modifications specified in this section.

B. To the extent excluded from federal adjusted gross income, there shall be added:

1. Interest, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal income, on obligations of any state other than Virginia, or of a political subdivision of any such other state unless created by compact or agreement to which Virginia is a party;

2. Interest or dividends, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal taxable income, on obligations or securities of any authority, commission or instrumentality of the United States, which the laws of the United States exempt from federal income tax but not from state income taxes;

3. Unrelated business taxable income as defined by 512 of the Internal Revenue Code;

4. The amount of a lump sum distribution from a qualified retirement plan, less the minimum distribution allowance and any amount excludable for federal income tax purposes that is excluded from federal adjusted gross income solely by virtue of an individual's election to use the averaging provisions under 402 of the Internal Revenue Code; and

5. through 8. [Repealed.]

9. The amount required to be included in income for the purpose of computing the partial tax on an accumulation distribution pursuant to 667 of the Internal Revenue Code.

C. To the extent included in federal adjusted gross income, there shall be subtracted:

1. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations, of the United States and on obligations or securities of any authority, commission or instrumentality of the United States to the extent exempt from state income taxes under the laws of the United States including, but not limited to, stocks, bonds, treasury bills, and treasury notes, but not including interest on refunds of federal taxes, interest on equipment purchase contracts, or interest on other normal business transactions.

2. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations of this Commonwealth or of any political subdivision or instrumentality of this Commonwealth.

3. [Repealed.]

4. Benefits received under Title II of the Social Security Act and other benefits subject to federal income taxation solely pursuant to 86 of the Internal Revenue Code.

4a. Through December 31, 2000, the same amount used in computing the federal credit allowed under 22 of the Internal Revenue Code by a retiree under age 65 who qualified for such retirement on the basis of permanent and total disability and who is a qualified individual as defined in 22 (b) (2) of the Internal Revenue Code; however, any person who claims a deduction under subdivision 5 of subsection D of this section may not also claim a subtraction under this subdivision.

4b. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2001, up to $20,000 of disability income, as defined in 22 (c) (2) (B) (iii) of the Internal Revenue Code; however, any person who claims a deduction under subdivision 5 of subsection D of this section may not also claim a subtraction under this subdivision.

5. The amount of any refund or credit for overpayment of income taxes imposed by the Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction.

6. The amount of wages or salaries eligible for the federal Targeted Jobs Credit which was not deducted for federal purposes on account of the provisions of 280C (a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

7, 8. [Repealed.]

9. [Expired.]

10. Any amount included therein less than $600 from a prize awarded by the State Lottery Department.

11. The wages or salaries received by any person for active and inactive service in the National Guard of the Commonwealth of Virginia, not to exceed the amount of income derived from 39 calendar days of such service or $3,000, whichever amount is less; however, only those persons in the ranks of O3 and below shall be entitled to the deductions specified herein.

12. Amounts received by an individual, not to exceed $1,000 in any taxable year, as a reward for information provided to a law-enforcement official or agency, or to a nonprofit corporation created exclusively to assist such law-enforcement official or agency, in the apprehension and conviction of perpetrators of crimes. This provision shall not apply to the following: an individual who is an employee of, or under contract with, a law-enforcement agency, a victim or the perpetrator of the crime for which the reward was paid, or any person who is compensated for the investigation of crimes or accidents.

13. [Repealed.]

14. (Expires for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004) The amount of any qualified agricultural contribution as determined in 58.1-322.2.

15, 16. [Repealed.]

17. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1995, the amount of "qualified research expenses" or "basic research expenses" eligible for deduction for federal purposes, but which were not deducted, on account of the provisions of 280C (c) of the Internal Revenue Code and which shall be available to partners, shareholders of S corporations, and members of limited liability companies to the extent and in the same manner as other deductions may pass through to such partners, shareholders, and members.

18. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1995, all military pay and allowances, not otherwise subtracted under this subsection, earned for any month during any part of which such member performed military service in any part of the former Yugoslavia, including the air space above such location or any waters subject to related naval operations, in support of Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR as part of the NATO Peace Keeping Force. Such subtraction shall be available until the taxpayer completes such service.

19. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1996, any income received during the taxable year derived from a qualified pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan as described by 401 of the Internal Revenue Code, an individual retirement account or annuity established under 408 of the Internal Revenue Code, a deferred compensation plan as defined by 457 of the Internal Revenue Code, or any federal government retirement program, the contributions to which were deductible from the taxpayer's federal adjusted gross income, but only to the extent the contributions to such plan or program were subject to taxation under the income tax in another state.

20. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1997, any income attributable to a distribution of benefits or a refund from a prepaid tuition contract or savings trust account with the Virginia College Savings Plan, created pursuant to Chapter 4.9 ( 23-38.75 et seq.) of Title 23. The subtraction for any income attributable to a refund shall be limited to income attributable to a refund in the event of a beneficiary's death, disability, or receipt of a scholarship.

21. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1998, all military pay and allowances, to the extent included in federal adjusted gross income and not otherwise subtracted, deducted or exempted under this section, earned by military personnel while serving by order of the President of the United States with the consent of Congress in a combat zone or qualified hazardous duty area which is treated as a combat zone for federal tax purposes pursuant to 112 of the Internal Revenue Code.

22. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, the gain derived from the sale or exchange of real property or the sale or exchange of an easement to real property which results in the real property or the easement thereto being devoted to open-space use, as that term is defined in 58.1-3230, for a period of time not less than 30 years. To the extent a subtraction is taken in accordance with this subdivision, no tax credit under this chapter for donating land for its preservation shall be allowed for three years following the year in which the subtraction is taken.

23. Effective for all taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, $15,000 of military basic pay for military service personnel on extended active duty for periods in excess of 90 days; however, the subtraction amount shall be reduced dollar-for-dollar by the amount which the taxpayer's military basic pay exceeds $15,000 and shall be reduced to zero if such military basic pay amount is equal to or exceeds $30,000.

24. Effective for all taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, the first $15,000 of salary for each federal and state employee whose annual salary is $15,000 or less.

25. Unemployment benefits taxable pursuant to 85 of the Internal Revenue Code.

26. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2001, any amount received as military retirement income by an individual awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

27. Effective for all taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1999, income received as a result of (i) the "Master Settlement Agreement," as defined in 3.1-1106; (ii) the National Tobacco Grower Settlement Trust dated July 19, 1999; and (iii) the Tobacco Loss Assistance Program, pursuant to 7 C.F.R. Part 1464 (Subpart C, 1464.201 through 1464.205), by (a) tobacco farmers; (b) any person holding a tobacco marketing quota, or tobacco farm acreage allotment, under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938; or (c) any person having the right to grow tobacco pursuant to such a quota or allotment, but only to the extent that such income has not been subtracted pursuant to subdivision C 18 of 58.1-402.

28. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, items of income attributable to, derived from or in any way related to (i) assets stolen from, hidden from or otherwise lost by an individual who was a victim or target of Nazi persecution or (ii) damages, reparations, or other consideration received by a victim or target of Nazi persecution to compensate such individual for performing labor against his will under the threat of death, during World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath. This subtraction shall not apply to assets acquired with such items of income or with the proceeds from the sale of assets stolen from, hidden from or otherwise lost to, during World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath, a victim or target of Nazi persecution. The provisions of this subdivision shall only apply to an individual who was the first recipient of such items of income and who was a victim or target of Nazi persecution, or a spouse, widow, widower, or child or stepchild of such victim.

"Victim or target of Nazi persecution" means any individual persecuted or targeted for persecution by the Nazi regime who had assets stolen from, hidden from or otherwise lost as a result of any act or omission in any way relating to (i) the Holocaust; (ii) World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath; (iii) transactions with or actions of the Nazi regime; (iv) treatment of refugees fleeing Nazi persecution; or (v) the holding of such assets by entities or persons in the Swiss Confederation during World War II and its prelude and aftermath. A victim or target of Nazi persecution shall also include any individual forced into labor against his will, under the threat of death, during World War II and its prelude and direct aftermath. As used in this subdivision, "Nazi regime" means the country of Nazi Germany, areas occupied by Nazi Germany, those European countries allied with Nazi Germany, or any other neutral European country or area in Europe under the influence or threat of Nazi invasion.

29. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2002, any gain recognized as a result of the Peanut Quota Buyout Program of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 pursuant to 7 C.F.R. Part 1412 (Subpart H, 1412.801 through 1412.811) as follows:

a. If the payment is received in installment payments pursuant to 7 C.F.R. 1412.807(a)(2), then the entire gain recognized may be subtracted.

b. If the payment is received in a single payment pursuant to 7 C.F.R. 1412.807(a)(3), then 20 percent of the recognized gain may be subtracted. The taxpayer may then deduct an equal amount in each of the four succeeding taxable years.

30. Effective for all taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2002, but before January 1, 2005, the indemnification payments received by contract poultry growers and table egg producers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture as a result of the depopulation of poultry flocks because of low pathogenic avian influenza in 2002. In no event shall indemnification payments made to owners of poultry who contract with poultry growers qualify for this subtraction.

31. Effective for all taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2001, the military death gratuity payment made after September 11, 2001, to the survivor of deceased military personnel killed in the line of duty, pursuant to Chapter 75 of Title 10 of the United States Code; however, the subtraction amount shall be reduced dollar-for-dollar by the amount that the survivor may exclude from his federal gross income in accordance with 134 of the Internal Revenue Code.

D. In computing Virginia taxable income there shall be deducted from federal adjusted gross income:

1. a. The amount allowable for itemized deductions for federal income tax purposes where the taxpayer has elected for the taxable year to itemize deductions on his federal return, but reduced by the amount of income taxes imposed by the Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction and deducted on such federal return and increased by an amount which, when added to the amount deducted under 170 of the Internal Revenue Code for mileage, results in a mileage deduction at the state level for such purposes at a rate of 18 cents per mile; or

b. Two thousand dollars for taxable years beginning January 1, 1987, through December 31, 1987; $2,700 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1988, through December 31, 1988; and $5,000 for married persons (one-half of such amounts in the case of a married individual filing a separate return); and $3,000Three thousand dollars for single individuals for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1989; $5,000 for married persons (one-half of such amounts in the case of a married individual filing a separate return) for taxable years beginning January 1, 1989, but before January 1, 2005; and $6,000 for married persons (one-half of such amounts in the case of a married individual filing a separate return) for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2005, provided that the taxpayer has not itemized deductions for the taxable year on his federal income tax return. For purposes of this section, any person who may be claimed as a dependent on another taxpayer's return for the taxable year may compute the deduction only with respect to earned income.

2. a. A deduction in the amount of $700 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1987, through December 31, 1987, and $800 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1988, through December 31, 2004, and $1,000 for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2005; for each personal exemption allowable to the taxpayer for federal income tax purposes.

b. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1987, each blind or aged taxpayer as defined under 63 (f) of the Internal Revenue Code shall be entitled to an additional personal exemption in the amount of $800.

b. An additional deduction of $200 for taxable years beginning January 1, 1987, through December 31, 1987, for each blind or aged taxpayer as defined under 63 (f) of the Internal Revenue Code. The additional deduction for blind or aged taxpayers allowed under this subdivision and the additional personal exemption allowed to blind or aged taxpayers under subdivision 2 a of this subsection shall be allowable regardless of whether the taxpayer itemizes deductions for the taxable year for federal income tax purposes.

3. A deduction equal to the amount of employment-related expenses upon which the federal credit is based under 21 of the Internal Revenue Code for expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.

4. An additional $1,000 deduction for each child residing for the entire taxable year in a home under permanent foster care placement as defined in 63.2-908, provided the taxpayer can also claim the child as a personal exemption under 151 of the Internal Revenue Code.

5. a. Effective for all taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1996, but before January 1, 2004, a deduction in the amount of $12,000 for taxpayers age 65 or older, or $6,000 for taxpayers age 62 through 64.

b. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, a deduction in the amount of $12,000 for individuals born on or before January 1, 1939.

c. For taxable years beginning January 1, 2004, but before January 1, 2005, a deduction in the amount of $6,000 for individuals born on or between January 2, 1940, and January 1, 1942.

d. For taxable years beginning January 1, 2005, but before January 1, 2006, a deduction in the amount of $6,000 for individuals born on or between January 2, 1941, and January 1, 1942.

e. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, a deduction in the amount of $12,000 for individuals born after January 1, 1939, who have attained the age of 65. This deduction shall be reduced by $1 for every $1 that the taxpayer’s adjusted federal adjusted gross income exceeds $50,000 for single taxpayers or $75,000 for married taxpayers. For married taxpayers filing separately, the deduction will be reduced by $1 for every $1 the total combined adjusted federal adjusted gross income of both spouses exceeds $75,000.

f. For the purposes of this subdivision, “adjusted federal adjusted gross income” means federal adjusted gross income minus any benefits received under Title II of the Social Security Act and other benefits subject to federal income taxation solely pursuant to 86 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended.

6. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1997, the amount an individual pays as a fee for an initial screening to become a possible bone marrow donor, if (i) the individual is not reimbursed for such fee or (ii) the individual has not claimed a deduction for the payment of such fee on his federal income tax return.

7. a. A deduction shall be allowed to the purchaser or contributor for the amount paid or contributed during the taxable year for a prepaid tuition contract or savings trust account entered into with the Virginia College Savings Plan, pursuant to Chapter 4.9 ( 23-38.75 et seq.) of Title 23. Except as provided in subdivision 7 c, the amount deducted on any individual income tax return in any taxable year shall be limited to $2,000 per prepaid tuition contract or savings trust account. No deduction shall be allowed pursuant to this section if such payments or contributions are deducted on the purchaser's or contributor's federal income tax return. If the purchase price or annual contribution to a savings trust account exceeds $2,000, the remainder may be carried forward and subtracted in future taxable years until the purchase price or savings trust contribution has been fully deducted; however, except as provided in subdivision 7 c, in no event shall the amount deducted in any taxable year exceed $2,000 per contract or savings trust account. Notwithstanding the statute of limitations on assessments contained in 58.1-312, any deduction taken hereunder shall be subject to recapture in the taxable year or years in which distributions or refunds are made for any reason other than (i) to pay qualified higher education expenses, as defined in 529 of the Internal Revenue Code or (ii) the beneficiary's death, disability, or receipt of a scholarship. For the purposes of this subdivision, the term "purchaser" or "contributor" means the person shown as such on the records of the Virginia College Savings Plan as of December 31 of the taxable year. In the case of a transfer of ownership of a prepaid tuition contract or savings trust account, the transferee shall succeed to the transferor's tax attributes associated with a prepaid tuition contract or savings trust account, including, but not limited to, carryover and recapture of deductions.

b. The amount paid for a prepaid tuition contract during taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1996, but before January 1, 1998, shall be deducted in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1998, and shall be subject to the limitations set out in subdivision 7 a.

c. A purchaser of a prepaid tuition contract or contributor to a savings trust account who has attained age 70 shall not be subject to the limitation that the amount of the deduction not exceed $2,000 per prepaid tuition contract or savings trust account in any taxable year. Such taxpayer shall be allowed a deduction for the full amount paid for the contract or contributed to a savings trust account, less any amounts previously deducted. If a prepaid tuition contract was purchased by such taxpayer during taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1996, but before January 1, 1998, such taxpayer may take the deduction for the full amount paid during such years, less any amounts previously deducted with respect to such payments, in taxable year 1999 or by filing an amended return for taxable year 1998.

8. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, the total amount an individual actually contributed in funds to the Virginia Public School Construction Grants Program and Fund, established in Chapter 11.1 ( 22.1-175.1 et seq.) of Title 22.1, provided the individual has not claimed a deduction for such amount on his federal income tax return.

9. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1999, an amount equal to 20 percent of the tuition costs incurred by an individual employed as a primary or secondary school teacher licensed pursuant to Chapter 15 ( 22.1-289.1 et seq.) of Title 22.1 to attend continuing teacher education courses that are required as a condition of employment; however, the deduction provided by this subsection shall be available only if (i) the individual is not reimbursed for such tuition costs and (ii) the individual has not claimed a deduction for the payment of such tuition costs on his federal income tax return.

10. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2000, the amount an individual pays annually in premiums for long-term health care insurance, provided the individual has not claimed a deduction for federal income tax purposes.

E. There shall be added to or subtracted from federal adjusted gross income, as the case may be, the individual's share, as beneficiary of an estate or trust, of the Virginia fiduciary adjustment determined under 58.1-361.

F. There shall be added or subtracted, as the case may be, the amounts provided in 58.1-315 as transitional modifications.

58.1-390.1. Definitions.

The following words and terms, when used in this article, shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Pass-through entity" means any entity, including a limited partnership, a limited liability partnership, a general partnership, a limited liability company, a professional limited liability company, a business trust or a Subchapter S Corporation, that is recognized as a separate entity for federal income tax purposes, in which the partners, members or shareholders report their share of the income, gains, losses, deductions and credits from the entity on their federal income tax returns.

"Owner" means any individual or entity who is treated as a partner, member, or shareholder of a pass-through entity for federal income tax purposes.

58.1-390.2 Taxation of pass-through entities.

Except as provided for in this article, owners of pass-through entities shall be liable for tax under this chapter only in their separate or individual capacities.

58.1-391. Virginia taxable income of partners.

A. In determining Virginia taxable income of a partner an owner, any modification described in 58.1-322 which that relates to an item of partnership pass-through entity income, gain, loss or deduction shall be made in accordance with the partner's owner's distributive share, for federal income tax purposes, of the item to which the modification relates. Where a partner's an owner's distributive share of any such item is not included in any category of income, gain, loss or deduction required to be taken into account separately for federal income tax purposes, the partner's owner's distributive share of such item shall be determined in accordance with his distributive share, for federal income tax purposes, of partnership pass-through entity taxable income or loss.

B. Each item of partnership pass-through entity income, gain, loss or deduction shall have the same character for a partner an owner under this chapter as for federal income tax purposes. Where an item is not characterized for federal income tax purposes, it shall have the same character for a partner an owner as if realized directly from the source from which realized by the partnership pass-through entity or incurred in the same manner by the partnership pass-through entity.

C. Where a partner's an owner's distributive shares of an item of partnership pass-through entity income, gain, loss or deduction is determined for federal income tax purposes by special provision in the partnership pass-through entity agreement with respect to such item, and where the principal purpose of such provision is the avoidance or evasion of tax under this chapter, the partner's owner's distributive share of such item, and any modification required with respect thereto, shall be determined as if the partnership pass-through entity agreement made no special provision with respect to such item.

58.1-392. Reports by partnerships.

No report shall be required to be filed with the Department of Taxation by any partnership organized under the laws of the Commonwealth or having income from Virginia sources. However, the Tax Commissioner shall have the authority to promulgate regulations requiring that partnerships furnish copies of federal partnership returns and attached schedules or any other information which he deems necessary. In promulgating such regulations, the Tax Commissioner may prescribe the imposition of a penalty in the amount of $100 for failure to comply, within a reasonable time, to the request for information as set forth therein.

A. Every pass-through entity doing business in Virginia, or having income from Virginia sources, shall make a return to the Department of Taxation on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of its taxable year. Such returns shall be made and filed in the manner prescribed by the Department.

B. The return of a pass-through entity shall be signed by any one of the owners. An owner's name signed on the return shall be prima facie evidence that such owner is authorized to sign the return on behalf of the pass-through entity.

C. The Tax Commissioner may establish an income threshold for the filing of returns by pass-through entities and their owners. Pass-through entities and owners with income below this threshold shall not be required to file a return.

D. Receivers, trustees in dissolution, trustees in bankruptcy, and assignees operating the property or business of pass-through entities must make and file returns of income for such pass-through entities. If a receiver has full custody of and control over the business or property of a pass-through entity, he shall be deemed to be operating such business or property, whether he is engaged in carrying on the business for which the pass-through entity was organized or only in marshaling, selling, or disposing of its assets for purposes of liquidation.

E. Pass-through entities may be required to file the return using an electronic medium prescribed by the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall establish a minimum number of owners for the electronic filing requirement. Waivers shall be granted only if the Tax Commissioner finds that the requirement creates an unreasonable burden on the pass-through entity. All requests for waivers must be submitted to the Tax Commissioner in writing. A pass-through entity that has fewer than the established minimum number of owners may, at such pass-through entity's option, file such annual return on such prescribed electronic medium in lieu of filing the annual return on paper.

58.1-393.1. Extension of time for filing return by pass-through entity.

A. Whenever any pass-through entity has been allowed or granted an extension of time within which to file any federal report of its income for any taxable year, the due date for the filing of the report or return required by this article shall be extended to the date six months after such due date, or 30 days after the extended date for filing the federal report, whichever is later.

B. In addition, the Department may grant an extension or extensions of time not to exceed a maximum of six months beyond the due date required by this article for filing such pass-through entity return.

58.1-394.1. Failure of pass-through entity to make a return.

A. Any pass-through entity that fails to file a return required by this article within the time required shall be liable for a penalty of $200 if the failure is for not more than one month, with an additional $200 for each additional month or fraction thereof during which such failure to file continues, not exceeding six months in the aggregate. In no case, however, shall the penalty be less than $200.

B. If any pass-through entity's failure to file a return required by this article exceeds six months, the Department shall assess a penalty of six percent of the total amount of Virginia taxable income derived by its owners from the pass-through entity for the taxable year. The Department may determine such penalty from any information in its possession. The penalty assessed pursuant to this subsection shall be reduced by the penalty assessed pursuant to subsection A and any tax paid by the owners on their share of income from the pass-through entity for the taxable year.

C. The penalties set forth in this subsection shall be assessed and collected by the Department in the manner provided for the assessment and collection of taxes under this chapter or in a civil action, at the instance of the Department. In addition, such pass-through entity shall be compellable by mandamus to file such return.

58.1-394.2. Fraudulent returns, etc., of pass-through entities; penalty.

A. Any officer or owner of any pass-through entity who makes a fraudulent return or statement with the intent of assisting or facilitating the evasion of the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter by the pass-through entity or an owner shall be liable for a penalty of not more than $1,000, to be assessed and collected in the manner provided for the assessment and collection of taxes under this chapter or in a civil action, at the instance of the Department.

B. In addition to other penalties provided by law, any officer or owner of a pass-through entity who makes a fraudulent return or statement with the intent of assisting or facilitating the evasion of the payment of the taxes prescribed by this chapter by the pass-through entity or an owner, or who willfully fails or refuses to make a return required by this chapter at the time or times required by law shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. A prosecution under this section shall be commenced within five years next after the commission of the offense.

58.1-395. Nonresident owners.

Pass-through entities may make written application to the Tax Commissioner for permission to file a statement of combined pass-through entity income attributable to nonresident owners and thereby relieve nonresident owners from filing individual nonresident returns. The application must state the reasons for seeking such permission. The Tax Commissioner, in his sole discretion, may, for good cause, grant permission to file a combined nonresident return upon such terms as he may determine

58.1-402. Virginia taxable income.

A. For purposes of this article, Virginia taxable income for a taxable year means the federal taxable income and any other income taxable to the corporation under federal law for such year of a corporation adjusted as provided in subsections B, C and D.

For a regulated investment company and a real estate investment trust, such term means the "investment company taxable income" and "real estate investment trust taxable income," respectively, to which shall be added in each case any amount of capital gains and any other income taxable to the corporation under federal law which shall be further adjusted as provided in subsections B, C and D.

B. There shall be added to the extent excluded from federal taxable income:

1. Interest, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal taxable income, on obligations of any state other than Virginia, or of a political subdivision of any such other state unless created by compact or agreement to which the Commonwealth is a party;

2. Interest or dividends, less related expenses to the extent not deducted in determining federal taxable income, on obligations or securities of any authority, commission or instrumentality of the United States, which the laws of the United States exempt from federal income tax but not from state income taxes;

3. [Repealed.]

4. The amount of any net income taxes and other taxes, including franchise and excise taxes, which are based on, measured by, or computed with reference to net income, imposed by the Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction, to the extent deducted in determining federal taxable income;

5. Unrelated business taxable income as defined by 512 of the Internal Revenue Code;

6. The amount of employee stock ownership credit carry-over deducted by the corporation in computing federal taxable income under 404 (i) of the Internal Revenue Code;

7. The amount required to be included in income for the purpose of computing the partial tax on an accumulation distribution pursuant to 667 of the Internal Revenue Code.

8. a. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, the amount of any intangible expenses and costs directly or indirectly paid, accrued, or incurred to, or in connection directly or indirectly with one or more direct or indirect transactions with one or more related members to the extent such expenses and costs were deductible or deducted in computing federal taxable income for Virginia purposes. This addition shall not be required for any portion of the intangible expenses and costs if one of the following applies:

(1) The corresponding item of income received by the related member is subject to a tax based on or measured by net income or capital imposed by Virginia, another state, or a foreign government that has entered into a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States government;

(2) The related member derives at least one-third of its gross revenues from the licensing of intangible property to parties who are not related members, and the transaction giving rise to the expenses and costs between the corporation and the related member was made at rates and terms comparable to the rates and terms of agreements that the related member has entered into with parties who are not related members for the licensing of intangible property.

(3) The corporation can establish to the satisfaction of the Tax Commissioner that the intangible expenses and costs meet both of the following: (1) the related member during the same taxable year directly or indirectly paid, accrued or incurred such portion to a person who is not a related member, and (2) the transaction giving rise to the intangible expenses and costs between the corporation and the related member did not have as a principal purpose the avoidance of any portion of the tax due under this chapter.

b. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to limit or negate the Department’s authority under 58.1-446.

9. a. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004, the amount of any interest expenses and costs directly or indirectly paid, accrued, or incurred to, or in connection directly or indirectly with one or more direct or indirect transactions with one or more related members to the extent such expenses and costs were deductible or deducted in computing federal taxable income for Virginia purposes. This addition shall not be required for any portion of the interest expenses and costs, if:

(1) The related member has substantial business operations relating to interest-generating activities, in which the related member pays expenses for at least five full-time employees who maintain, manage, defend or are otherwise responsible for operations or administration relating to the interest-generating activities;

(2) The interest expenses and costs are not directly or indirectly for, related to or in connection with the direct or indirect acquisition, maintenance, management, sale, exchange, or disposition of intangible property,

(3) The transaction giving rise to the expenses and costs between the corporation and the related member has a valid business purpose other than the avoidance or reduction of taxation and payments between the parties are made at arm’s length rates and terms; and

(4) One of the following applies:

(a) The corresponding item of income received by the related member is subject to a tax based on or measured by net income or capital imposed by Virginia, another state, or a foreign government that has entered into a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States government;

(b) Payments arise pursuant to a pre-existing contract entered into when the parties were not related members provided the payments continue to be made at arm’s length rates and terms;

(c) The related member engages in transactions with parties other than related members that generate revenue in excess of two million dollars annually; or

(d) The transaction giving rise to the interest payments between the corporation and a related member was done at arm’s length rates and terms and meets any of the following:

(i) The related member uses funds that are borrowed from a party other than a related member or that are paid, incurred or passed-through to a person who is not a related member;

(ii) The debt is part of a regular and systematic funds management or portfolio investment activity conducted by the related member, whereby the funds of two or more related members are aggregated for the purpose of achieving economies of scale, the internal financing of the active business operations of members, or the benefit of centralized management of funds;

(iii) Financing the expansion of the business operations; or

(iii) Restructuring the debt of related members, or the pass-through of acquisition-related indebtedness to related members.

b. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to limit or negate the Department’s authority under 58.1-446.

c. For the purposes of this subdivision:

“Arms length rates and terms” means that (i) two or more related members enter into a written agreement for the transaction, (ii) such agreement is of a duration and contains payment terms substantially similar to those that the related member would be able to obtain from an unrelated entity, (iii) the interest is at or below the applicable federal rate compounded annually for debt instruments under 1274(d) of the Internal Revenue Code that was in effect at the time of the agreement and (iv) the borrower or payor adheres to the payment terms of the agreement governing the transaction or any amendments thereto.

“Valid business purpose” means one or more business purposes that alone or in combination constitute the motivation for some business activity or transaction, which activity or transaction improves, apart from tax effects, the economic position of the taxpayer, as further defined by regulation.

C. There shall be subtracted to the extent included in and not otherwise subtracted from federal taxable income:

1. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations, of the United States and on obligations or securities of any authority, commission or instrumentality of the United States to the extent exempt from state income taxes under the laws of the United States including, but not limited to, stocks, bonds, treasury bills, and treasury notes, but not including interest on refunds of federal taxes, interest on equipment purchase contracts, or interest on other normal business transactions.

2. Income derived from obligations, or on the sale or exchange of obligations of this Commonwealth or of any political subdivision or instrumentality of this Commonwealth.

3. Dividends upon stock in any domestic international sales corporation, as defined by 992 of the Internal Revenue Code, 50 percent or more of the income of which was assessable for the preceding year, or the last year in which such corporation has income, under the provisions of the income tax laws of the Commonwealth.

4. The amount of any refund or credit for overpayment of income taxes imposed by this Commonwealth or any other taxing jurisdiction.

5. Any amount included therein by the operation of the provisions of 78 of the Internal Revenue Code (foreign dividend gross-up).

6. The amount of wages or salaries eligible for the federal Targeted Jobs Credit which was not deducted for federal purposes on account of the provisions of 280C (a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

7. Any amount included therein by the operation of 951 of the Internal Revenue Code (subpart F income).

8. Any amount included therein which is foreign source income as defined in 58.1-302.

9. [Repealed.]

10. The amount of any dividends received from corporations in which the taxpaying corporation owns 50 percent or more of the voting stock.

11. [Repealed.]

12. [Expired.]

13. (Expires for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004) The amount of any qualified agricultural contribution as determined in 58.1-322.2.

14. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1995, the amount for "qualified research expenses" or "basic research expenses" eligible for deduction for federal purposes, but which were not deducted, on account of the provisions of 280C (c) of the Internal Revenue Code.

15. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, the total amount actually contributed in funds to the Virginia Public School Construction Grants Program and Fund established in Chapter 11.1 ( 22.1-175.1 et seq.) of Title 22.1.

16. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2000, the gain derived from the sale or exchange of real property or the sale or exchange of an easement to real property which results in the real property or the easement thereto being devoted to open-space use, as that term is defined in 58.1-3230, for a period of time not less than 30 years. To the extent a subtraction is taken in accordance with this subdivision, no tax credit under this chapter for donating land for its preservation shall be allowed for three years following the year in which the subtraction is taken.

17. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2001, any amount included therein with respect to 58.1-440.1.

18. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 1999, income received as a result of (i) the "Master Settlement Agreement," as defined in 3.1-1106; (ii) the National Tobacco Grower Settlement Trust dated July 19, 1999; and (iii) the Tobacco Loss Assistance Program, pursuant to 7 C.F.R. Part 1464 (Subpart C, 1464.201 through 1464.205), by (a) tobacco farming businesses; (b) any business holding a tobacco marketing quota, or tobacco farm acreage allotment, under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938; or (c) any business having the right to grow tobacco pursuant to such a quota allotment.

19. Effective for all taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2002, but before January 1, 2005, the indemnification payments received by contract poultry growers and table egg producers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture as a result of the depopulation of poultry flocks because of low pathogenic avian influenza in 2002. In no event shall indemnification payments made to owners of poultry who contract with poultry growers qualify for this subtraction.

20. For taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2002, any gain recognized as a result of the Peanut Quota Buyout Program of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 pursuant to 7 C.F.R. Part 1412 (Subpart H, 1412.801 through 1412.811) as follows:

a. If the payment is received in installment payments pursuant to 7 C.F.R. 1412.807(a)(2), then the entire gain recognized may be subtracted.

b. If the payment is received in a single payment pursuant to 7 C.F.R. 1412.807(a)(3), then 20 percent of the recognized gain may be subtracted. The taxpayer may then deduct an equal amount in each of the four succeeding taxable years.

D. Adjustments to federal taxable income shall be made to reflect the transitional modifications provided in 58.1-315.

58.1-441. Reports by corporations.

A. Every corporation organized under the laws of the Commonwealth, or having income from Virginia sources, other than a Subchapter S Corporation subject to the return filing requirements of 58.1-392, shall make a report to the Department on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the close of its taxable year. Such reports shall be made on forms prescribed by the Department and shall contain such information, including the gross receipts from any business carried on in the Commonwealth and a depreciation schedule of property used in such trade or business, as may be necessary for the proper enforcement of this chapter and be accompanied by a copy of any federal tax return or report filed for such taxable year. The Department shall not require any nonprofit organization created exclusively to assist a law-enforcement official or agency in apprehending and convicting perpetrators of crimes, to report on such returns, or otherwise, the names of individuals or amounts paid to such individuals by the organization for providing information about certain crimes.

Receivers, trustees in dissolution, trustees in bankruptcy, and assignees, operating the property or business of corporations must make returns of income for such corporations. If a receiver has full custody of and control over the business or property of a corporation, he shall be deemed to be operating such business or property, whether he is engaged in carrying on the business for which the corporation was organized or only in marshaling, selling, or disposing of its assets for purposes of liquidation.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, every organization to whom subdivision 5 of 58.1-401 applies, and having unrelated business taxable income or other taxable income, shall make a report to the Department on or before the fifteenth day of the sixth month following the close of the organization's taxable year.

58.1-603. Imposition of sales tax.

There is hereby levied and imposed, in addition to all other taxes and fees of every kind now imposed by law, a license or privilege tax upon every person who engages in the business of selling at retail or distributing tangible personal property in this Commonwealth, or who rents or furnishes any of the things or services taxable under this chapter, or who stores for use or consumption in this Commonwealth any item or article of tangible personal property as defined in this chapter, or who leases or rents such property within this Commonwealth, in the amount of three and one-half percent through September 30, 2004, and four percent beginning on and after October 1, 2004:

1. Of the gross sales price of each item or article of tangible personal property when sold at retail or distributed in this Commonwealth.

2. Of the gross proceeds derived from the lease or rental of tangible personal property, where the lease or rental of such property is an established business, or part of an established business, or the same is incidental or germane to such business.

3. Of the cost price of each item or article of tangible personal property stored in this Commonwealth for use or consumption in this Commonwealth.

4. Of the gross proceeds derived from the sale or charges for rooms, lodgings or accommodations furnished to transients as set out in the definition of "retail sale" in 58.1-602.

5. Of the gross sales of any services which are expressly stated as taxable within this chapter.

58.1-604. Imposition of use tax.

There is hereby levied and imposed, in addition to all other taxes and fees now imposed by law, a tax upon the use or consumption of tangible personal property in this Commonwealth, or the storage of such property outside the Commonwealth for use or consumption in this Commonwealth, in the amount of three and one-half percent through September 30, 2004, and four percent beginning on and after October 1, 2004:

1. Of the cost price of each item or article of tangible personal property used or consumed in this Commonwealth. Tangible personal property which has been acquired for use outside this Commonwealth and subsequently becomes subject to the tax imposed hereunder shall be taxed on the basis of its cost price if such property is brought within this Commonwealth for use within six months of its acquisition; but if so brought within this Commonwealth six months or more after its acquisition, such property shall be taxed on the basis of the current market value (but not in excess of its cost price) of such property at the time of its first use within this Commonwealth. Such tax shall be based on such proportion of the cost price or current market value as the duration of time of use within this Commonwealth bears to the total useful life of such property (but it shall be presumed in all cases that such property will remain within this Commonwealth for the remainder of its useful life unless convincing evidence is provided to the contrary).

2. Of the cost price of each item or article of tangible personal property stored outside this Commonwealth for use or consumption in this Commonwealth.

3. A transaction taxed under 58.1-603 shall not also be taxed under this section, nor shall the same transaction be taxed more than once under either section.

4. The use tax shall not apply with respect to the use of any article of tangible personal property brought into this Commonwealth by a nonresident individual, visiting in Virginia, for his personal use, while within this Commonwealth.

5. The use tax shall not apply to out-of-state mail order catalog purchases totaling $100 or less during any calendar year.

58.1-604.1. Use tax on motor vehicles, machinery, tools and equipment brought into Virginia for use in performing contracts.

In addition to the use tax levied pursuant to 58.1-604 and notwithstanding the provisions of 58.1-611, a use tax is levied upon the storage or use of all motor vehicles, machines, machinery, tools or other equipment brought, imported or caused to be brought into this Commonwealth for use in constructing, building or repairing any building, highway, street, sidewalk, bridge, culvert, sewer or water system, drainage or dredging system, railway system, reservoir or dam, hydraulic or power plant, transmission line, tower, dock, wharf, excavation, grading, or other improvement or structure, or any part thereof. The rate of tax is three and one-half percent through September 30, 2004, and four percent beginning on and after October 1, 2004, on all tangible personal property except motor vehicles, which shall be taxed at the rate of three percent; aircraft, which shall be taxed at the rate of two percent; and watercraft, which shall be taxed at the rate of two percent with a maximum tax of $1,000.

For purposes of this section the words "motor vehicle" means any vehicle which is self-propelled and designed primarily for use upon the highways, any vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from trolley wires but not operated upon rails, and any vehicle designed to run upon the highways which is pulled by a self-propelled vehicle, but shall not include any implement of husbandry, farm tractor, road construction or maintenance machinery or equipment, special mobile equipment or any vehicle designed primarily for use in work off the highway.

The tax shall be computed on the basis of such proportion of the original purchase price of such property as the duration of time of use in this Commonwealth bears to the total useful life thereof. For purposes of this section, the word "use" means use, storage, consumption and "stand-by" time occasioned by weather conditions, controversies or other causes. The tax shall be computed upon the basis of the relative time each item of equipment is in this Commonwealth rather than upon the basis of actual use. In the absence of satisfactory evidence as to the period of use intended in this Commonwealth, it will be presumed that such property will remain in this Commonwealth for the remainder of its useful life, which shall be determined in accordance with the experiences and practices of the building and construction trades.

A transaction taxed under 58.1-604, 58.1-605, 58.1-1402, 58.1-1502, or 58.1-2402 shall not also be taxed under this section, nor shall the same transaction be taxed more than once under any section.

58.1-605. To what extent and under what conditions cities and counties may levy local sales taxes; collection thereof by Commonwealth and return of revenue to each city or county entitled thereto.

A. No county, city or town shall impose any local general sales or use tax or any local general retail sales or use tax except as authorized by this section.

B. The council of any city and the governing body of any county may levy a general retail sales tax at the rate of one percent to provide revenue for the general fund of such city or county. Such tax shall be added to the rate of the state sales tax imposed by 58.1-603 and 58.1-604 and shall be subject to all the provisions of this chapter and the rules and regulations published with respect thereto. The applicable brackets of prices shall be as prescribed in 58.1-628 for the combined state and local tax. No discount under 58.1-622 shall be allowed on a local sales tax. Any accelerated payments of sales and use tax revenues by dealers in accordance with the provisions of 58.1-615 shall not affect the distribution to localities of such revenues collected in accordance with this section.

C. The council of any city and the governing body of any county desiring to impose a local sales tax under this section may do so by the adoption of an ordinance stating its purpose and referring to this section, and providing that such ordinance shall be effective on the first day of a month at least sixty days after its adoption. A certified copy of such ordinance shall be forwarded to the Tax Commissioner so that it will be received within five days after its adoption.

D. Any local sales tax levied under this section shall be administered and collected by the Tax Commissioner in the same manner and subject to the same penalties as provided for the state sales tax, with the adjustments required by 58.1-628.

E. All local sales tax moneys collected by the Tax Commissioner under this section shall be paid into the state treasury to the credit of a special fund which is hereby created on the Comptroller's books under the name "Collections of Local Sales Taxes." Such local sales tax moneys shall be credited to the account of each particular city or county levying a local sales tax under this section. The basis of such credit shall be the city or county in which the sales were made as shown by the records of the Department and certified by it monthly to the Comptroller, namely, the city or county of location of each place of business of every dealer paying the tax to the Commonwealth without regard to the city or county of possible use by the purchasers. If a dealer has any place of business located in more than one political subdivision by reason of the boundary line or lines passing through such place of business, the amount of sales tax paid by such a dealer with respect to such place of business shall be treated for the purposes of this section as follows: one-half shall be assignable to each political subdivision where two are involved, one-third where three are involved, and one-fourth where four are involved.

F. As soon as practicable after the local sales tax moneys have been paid into the state treasury in any month for the preceding month, the Comptroller shall draw his warrant on the Treasurer of Virginia in the proper amount in favor of each city or county entitled to the monthly return of its local sales tax moneys, and such payments shall be charged to the account of each such city or county under the special fund created by this section. If errors are made in any such payment, or adjustments are otherwise necessary, whether attributable to refunds to taxpayers, or to some other fact, the errors shall be corrected and adjustments made in the payments for the next six months as follows: one-sixth of the total adjustment shall be included in the payments for the next six months. In addition, the payment shall include a refund of amounts erroneously not paid to the city or county and not previously refunded during the three years preceding the discovery of the error. A correction and adjustment in payments described in this subsection due to the misallocation of funds by the dealer shall be made within three years of the date of the payment error.

G. Such payments to counties are subject to the qualification that in any county wherein is situated any incorporated town constituting a special school district and operated as a separate school district under a town school board of three members appointed by the town council, the county treasurer shall pay into the town treasury for general governmental purposes the proper proportionate amount received by him in the ratio that the school age population of such town bears to the school age population of the entire county. If the school age population of any town constituting a separate school district is increased by the annexation of territory since the last preceding school age population census, such increase shall, for the purposes of this section, be added to the school age population of such town as shown by the last such census and a proper reduction made in the school age population of the county or counties from which the annexed territory was acquired.

H. One-half of such payments to counties are subject to the further qualification, other than as set out in subsection G above, that in any county wherein is situated any incorporated town not constituting a separate special school district which has complied with its charter provisions providing for the election of its council and mayor for a period of at least four years immediately prior to the adoption of the sales tax ordinance, the county treasurer shall pay into the town treasury of each such town for general governmental purposes the proper proportionate amount received by him in the ratio that the school age population of each such town bears to the school age population of the entire county, based on the latest statewide school census. The preceding requirement pertaining to the time interval between compliance with election provisions and adoption of the sales tax ordinance shall not apply to a tier-city. If the school age population of any such town not constituting a separate special school district is increased by the annexation of territory or otherwise since the last preceding school age population census, such increase shall, for the purposes of this section, be added to the school age population of such town as shown by the last such census and a proper reduction made in the school age population of the county or counties from which the annexed territory was acquired.

I. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection H, the board of supervisors of a county may, in its discretion, appropriate funds to any incorporated town not constituting a separate school district within such county which has not complied with the provisions of its charter relating to the elections of its council and mayor, an amount not to exceed the amount it would have received from the tax imposed by this chapter if such election had been held.

J. It is further provided that if any incorporated town which would otherwise be eligible to receive funds from the county treasurer under subsection G or H of this section be located in a county which does not levy a general retail sales tax under the provisions of this law, such town may levy a general retail sales tax at the rate of one percent to provide revenue for the general fund of the town, subject to all the provisions of this section generally applicable to cities and counties. Any tax levied under the authority of this subsection shall in no case continue to be levied on or after the effective date of a county ordinance imposing a general retail sales tax in the county within which such town is located.

58.1-606. To what extent and under what conditions cities and counties may levy local use tax; collection thereof by Commonwealth and return of revenues to the cities and counties.

A. The council of any city and the governing body of any county which has levied or may hereafter levy a city or county sales tax under 58.1-605 may levy a city or county use tax at the rate of one percent to provide revenue for the general fund of such city or county. Such tax shall be added to the rate of the state use tax imposed by this chapter and shall be subject to all the provisions of this chapter, and all amendments thereof, and the rules and regulations published with respect thereto, except that the applicable brackets of prices shall be as prescribed in 58.1-628 for the combined state and local tax, and except that no discount under 58.1-622 shall be allowed on a local use tax. Any accelerated payments of sales and use tax revenues by dealers in accordance with the provisions of 58.1-615 shall not affect the distribution to localities of such revenues collected in accordance with this section.

B. The council of any city and the governing body of any county desiring to impose a local use tax under this section may do so in the manner following:

1. If the city or county has previously imposed the local sales tax authorized by 58.1-605, the local use tax may be imposed by the council or governing body by the adoption of a resolution by a majority of all the members thereof, by a recorded yea and nay vote, stating its purpose and referring to this section, and providing that the local use tax shall become effective on the first day of a month at least sixty days after the adoption of the resolution. A certified copy of such resolution shall be forwarded to the Tax Commissioner so that it will be received within five days after its adoption. The resolution authorized by this paragraph may be adopted in the manner stated notwithstanding any other provision of law, including any charter provision.

2. If the city or county has not imposed the local sales tax authorized by 58.1-605, the local use tax may be imposed by ordinance together with the local sales tax in the manner set out in subsections B and C of 58.1-605.

C. Any local use tax levied under this section shall be administered and collected by the Tax Commissioner in the same manner and subject to the same penalties as provided for the state use tax, with the adjustments required by 58.1-628.

D. The local use tax authorized by this section shall not apply to transactions to which the sales tax applies, the situs of which for state and local sales tax purposes is the city or county of location of each place of business of every dealer paying the tax to the Commonwealth without regard to the city or county of possible use by the purchasers. However, the local use tax authorized by this section shall apply to tangible personal property purchased without this Commonwealth for use or consumption within the city or county imposing the local use tax, or stored within the city or county for use or consumption, where the property would have been subject to the sales tax if it had been purchased within this Commonwealth. The local use tax shall also apply to leases or rentals of tangible personal property where the place of business of the lessor is without this Commonwealth and such leases or rentals are subject to the state tax. Moreover, the local use tax shall apply in all cases in which the state use tax applies.

E. Out-of-state dealers who hold certificates of registration to collect the use tax from their customers for remittance to this Commonwealth shall, to the extent reasonably practicable, in filing their monthly use tax returns with the Tax Commissioner, break down their shipments into this Commonwealth by cities and counties so as to show the city or county of destination. If, however, the out-of-state dealer is unable accurately to assign any shipment to a particular city or county, the local use tax on the tangible personal property involved shall be remitted to the Commonwealth by such dealer without attempting to assign the shipment to any city or county.

F. Local use tax revenue shall be distributed among the cities and counties for which it is collected, respectively, as shown by the records of the Department, and the procedure shall be the same as that prescribed for distribution of local sales tax revenue under 58.1-605. The local use tax revenue that is not accurately assignable to a particular city or county shall be distributed monthly by the appropriate state authorities among the cities and counties in this Commonwealth imposing the local use tax upon the basis of taxable retail sales in the respective cities and counties in which the local sales and use tax was in effect in the taxable month involved, as shown by the records of the Department, and computed with respect to taxable retail sales as reflected by the amounts of the local sales tax revenue distributed among such cities and counties, respectively, in the month of distribution. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Tax Commissioner shall develop a uniform method to distribute local use tax. Any significant changes to the method of local use tax distribution shall be phased in over a five-year period. Distribution information shall be shared with the affected localities prior to implementation of the changes.

G. All local use tax revenue shall be used, applied or disbursed by the cities and counties as provided in 58.1-605 with respect to local sales tax revenue.

58.1-609.3. Commercial and industrial exemptions.

The tax imposed by this chapter or pursuant to the authority granted in 58.1-605 and 58.1-606 shall not apply to the following:

1. Personal property purchased by a contractor which is used solely in another state or in a foreign country, which could be purchased by such contractor for such use free from sales tax in such other state or foreign country, and which is stored temporarily in Virginia pending shipment to such state or country.

2. (i) Industrial materials for future processing, manufacturing, refining, or conversion into articles of tangible personal property for resale where such industrial materials either enter into the production of or become a component part of the finished product; (ii) industrial materials that are coated upon or impregnated into the product at any stage of its being processed, manufactured, refined, or converted for resale; (iii) machinery or tools or repair parts therefor or replacements thereof, fuel, power, energy, or supplies, used directly in processing, manufacturing, refining, mining or converting products for sale or resale; (iv) materials, containers, labels, sacks, cans, boxes, drums or bags for future use for packaging tangible personal property for shipment or sale; or (v) equipment, printing or supplies used directly to produce a publication described in subdivision 3 of 58.1-609.6 whether it is ultimately sold at retail or for resale or distribution at no cost. Machinery, tools and equipment, or repair parts therefor or replacements thereof, shall be exempt if the preponderance of their use is directly in processing, manufacturing, refining, mining or converting products for sale or resale. The provisions of this subsection do not apply to the drilling, extraction, refining, or processing of oil, gas, natural gas and coalbed methane gas. In addition, the exemption provided herein shall not be applicable to any machinery, tools, and equipment, or any other tangible personal property used in the generation of electric power, except for raw materials that are inputs to production of electricity.

3. Tangible personal property sold or leased to (i) a public service corporation subject to a state franchise or license tax upon gross receipts, (ii) a telecommunications company as defined in 58.1-400.1 or (iii) a telephone company chartered in the Commonwealth which is exclusively a local mutual association and is not designated to accumulate profits for the benefit of, or to pay dividends to, the stockholders or members thereof, for use or consumption by such corporation, company, person or mutual association directly in the rendition of its public service; and tangible personal property sold or leased to a public service corporation engaged in business as a common carrier of property or passengers by motor vehicle or railway, for use or consumption by such common carrier directly in the rendition of its public service.

4. Ships or vessels, or repairs and alterations thereof, used or to be used exclusively or principally in interstate or foreign commerce; fuel and supplies for use or consumption aboard ships or vessels plying the high seas, either in intercoastal trade between ports in the Commonwealth and ports in other states of the United States or its territories or possessions, or in foreign commerce between ports in the Commonwealth and ports in foreign countries, when delivered directly to such ships or vessels; or tangible personal property used directly in the building, conversion or repair of the ships or vessels covered by this subdivision. This exemption shall include dredges, their supporting equipment, attendant vessels, and fuel and supplies for use or consumption aboard such vessels, provided the dredges are used exclusively or principally in interstate or foreign commerce.

5. Tangible personal property purchased for use or consumption directly and exclusively in basic research or research and development in the experimental or laboratory sense.

6. Tangible personal property sold or leased to an airline operating in intrastate, interstate or foreign commerce as a common carrier providing scheduled air service on a continuing basis to one or more Virginia airports at least one day per week, for use or consumption by such airline directly in the rendition of its common carrier service.

7. Meals furnished by restaurants or food service operators to employees as a part of wages.

8. Tangible personal property including machinery and tools, repair parts or replacements thereof, and supplies and materials used directly in maintaining and preparing textile products for rental or leasing by an industrial processor engaged in the commercial leasing or renting of laundered textile products.

9. (i) Certified pollution control equipment and facilities as defined in 58.1-3660, except for any equipment that has not been certified to the Department of Taxation by a state certifying authority pursuant to such section and (ii) effective retroactive to July 1, 1994, and ending July 1, 2006, certified pollution control equipment and facilities as defined in 58.1-3660 and which, in accordance with such section, have been certified by the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy for coal, oil and gas production, including gas, natural gas, and coalbed methane gas.

10. Parts, tires, meters and dispatch radios sold or leased to taxicab operators for use or consumption directly in the rendition of their services.

11. High speed electrostatic duplicators or any other duplicators which have a printing capacity of 4,000 impressions or more per hour purchased or leased by persons engaged primarily in the printing or photocopying of products for sale or resale.

12. From July 1, 1994, and ending July 1, 2006, raw materials, fuel, power, energy, supplies, machinery or tools or repair parts therefor or replacements thereof, used directly in the drilling, extraction, refining, or processing of natural gas or oil and the reclamation of the well area. For the purposes of this section, the term "natural gas" shall mean "gas," "natural gas," and "coalbed methane gas" as defined in 45.1-361.1. For the purposes of this section, "drilling," "extraction," "refining," and "processing" shall include production, inspection, testing, dewatering, dehydration, or distillation of raw natural gas into a usable condition consistent with commercial practices, and the gathering and transportation of raw natural gas to a facility wherein the gas is converted into such a usable condition. Machinery, tools and equipment, or repair parts therefor or replacements thereof, shall be exempt if the preponderance of their use is directly in the drilling, extraction, refining, or processing of natural gas or oil for sale or resale, or in well area reclamation activities required by state or federal law.

13. Beginning July 1, 1997, and ending July 1, 2011, (i) the sale, lease, use, storage, consumption, or distribution of an orbital or suborbital space facility, space propulsion system, space vehicle, satellite, or space station of any kind possessing space flight capability, including the components thereof, irrespective of whether such facility, system, vehicle, satellite, or station is returned to this Commonwealth for subsequent use, storage or consumption in any manner when used to conduct spaceport activities; (ii) the sale, lease, use, storage, consumption or distribution of tangible personal property placed on or used aboard any orbital or suborbital space facility, space propulsion system, space vehicle, satellite or space station of any kind, irrespective of whether such tangible personal property is returned to this Commonwealth for subsequent use, storage or consumption in any manner when used to conduct spaceport activities; (iii) fuels of such quality not adapted for use in ordinary vehicles, being produced for, sold and exclusively used for space flight when used to conduct spaceport activities; (iv) the sale, lease, use, storage, consumption or distribution of machinery and equipment purchased, sold, leased, rented or used exclusively for spaceport activities and the sale of goods and services provided to operate and maintain launch facilities, launch equipment, payload processing facilities and payload processing equipment used to conduct spaceport activities.

For purposes of this subdivision, "spaceport activities" means activities directed or sponsored at a facility owned, leased, or operated by or on behalf of the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority.

The exemptions provided by this subdivision shall not be denied by reason of a failure, postponement or cancellation of a launch of any orbital or suborbital space facility, space propulsion system, space vehicle, satellite or space station of any kind or the destruction of any launch vehicle or any components thereof.

58.1-611.1. Rate of tax on sales of food purchased for human consumption; Food Tax Reduction Program.

A. Subject to the conditions of subsections D and E, the The tax imposed by 58.1-603 and 58.1-604 on food purchased for human consumption shall be levied and distributed as follows:

1. From January 1, 2000, through March 31, 2001 September 30, 2004, the tax rate on such food shall be three percent of the gross sales price. The revenue from the tax shall be distributed as follows: (i) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one-half percent shall be distributed as provided in subsection A of 58.1-638, (ii) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one percent shall be distributed as provided in subsections B, C and D of 58.1-638, and (iii) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one and one-half percent shall be used for general fund purposes.

2. From April 1, 2001 October 1, 2004, through March 31, 2002 June 30, 2005, the tax rate on such food shall be two and one-half percent of the gross sales price. The revenue from the tax shall be distributed as follows: (i) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one-half percent shall be distributed as provided in subsection A of 58.1-638, (ii) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one percent shall be distributed as provided in subsections B, C and D of 58.1-638, and (iii) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one percent shall be used for general fund purposes.

3. From April 1, 2002, through March 31, 2003 Beginning July 1, 2005, the tax rate on such food shall be two percent of the gross sales price. The revenue from the tax shall be distributed as follows: (i) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one-half percent shall be distributed as provided in subsection A of 58.1-638, (ii) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one percent shall be distributed as provided in subsections B, C and D of 58.1-638, and (iii) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one-half percent shall be used for general fund purposes.

4. Subject to the provisions of subsections D and E, On and on or after April 1, 2003 2007, the tax rate on such food shall be one and one-half percent of the gross sales price. The revenue from the tax shall be distributed as follows: (i) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one-half percent shall be distributed as provided in subsection A of 58.1-638 and (ii) the revenue from the tax at the rate of one percent shall be distributed as provided in subsections B, C and D of 58.1-638.

B. The provisions of this section shall not affect the imposition of tax on food purchased for human consumption pursuant to 58.1-605 and 58.1-606.

C. As used in this section, "food purchased for human consumption" has the same meaning as "food" defined in the Food Stamp Act of 1977, 7 U.S.C. 2012, as amended, and federal regulations adopted pursuant to that Act, except it shall not include seeds and plants which produce food for human consumption. For the purpose of this section, "food purchased for human consumption" shall not include food sold by any retail establishment where the gross receipts derived from the sale of food prepared by such retail establishment for immediate consumption on or off the premises of the retail establishment constitutes more than 80 percent of the total gross receipts of that retail establishment, including but not limited to motor fuel purchases, regardless of whether such prepared food is consumed on the premises of that retail establishment. For purposes of this section, "retail establishment" means each place of business for which any "dealer," as defined in 58.1-612, is required to apply for and receive a certificate of registration pursuant to 58.1-613.

D. Notwithstanding the tax rates set forth in subsection A, the rate of tax on sales of food purchased for human consumption for any 12-month period beginning on or after April 1, 2001July 1, 2006, shall not be reduced below the rate then in effect for the Commonwealth's current fiscal year if:

1. Actual general fund revenues for the fiscal year preceding a fiscal year in which a rate reduction is contemplated in subsection A do not exceed the official general fund revenue estimates for such preceding fiscal year, as estimated in the most recently enacted and approved general appropriation act, by at least one percent; or

2. Any of the events listed in subsection C of 58.1-3524 or subsection B of 58.1-3536 have occurred during the then current fiscal year.

E. If the tax rate on food purchased for human consumption remains the same for the period January 1, 2000 July 1, 2006, through March 31, 20012007, and the subsequent 12-month period beginning on April 1, 20012007, or with respect to any consecutive 12-month periods beginning on and after April 1, 20012007, the tax rate on such food shall remain the same unless none of the conditions described in subsection D have occurred, in which event the tax rate on food purchased for human consumption for the immediately following 12-month period shall be equal to the next lowest tax rate listed in subsection A.

58.1-614. Vending machine sales.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of 58.1-603 and 58.1-604, whenever a dealer makes sales of tangible personal property through vending machines, or in any other manner making collection of the tax impractical, as determined by the Tax Commissioner, such dealer shall be required to report his wholesale purchases for sale at retail from vending machines and shall be required to remit an amount based on four and one-half five percent of such wholesale purchases.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of 58.1-605 and 58.1-606, dealers making sales of tangible personal property through vending machines shall report and remit the one percent local sales and use tax computed as provided in subsection A of this section.

C. The provisions of subsections A and B of this section shall not be applicable to vending machine operators all of whose machines are under contract to nonprofit organizations. Such operators shall report only the gross receipts from machines selling items for more than ten cents and shall be required to remit an amount based on a percentage of their remaining gross sales established by the Tax Commissioner to take into account the inclusion of sales tax.

D. Notwithstanding any other provisions in this section or 58.1-628, when the Tax Commissioner determines that it is impractical to collect the tax in the manner provided by those sections, such dealer shall be required to remit an amount based on a percentage of gross receipts which takes into account the inclusion of the sales tax.

E. The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to any dealer who fails to maintain records satisfactory to the Tax Commissioner. A dealer making sales of tangible personal property through vending machines shall obtain a certificate of registration under 58.1-613 in relevant form for each county or city in which he has machines.

58.1-615. Returns by dealers.

A. Every dealer required to collect or pay the sales or use tax shall, on or before the twentieth day of the month following the month in which the tax shall become effective, transmit to the Tax Commissioner a return showing the gross sales, gross proceeds, or cost price, as the case may be, arising from all transactions taxable under this chapter during the preceding calendar month, and thereafter a like return shall be prepared and transmitted to the Tax Commissioner by every dealer on or before the twentieth day of each month, for the preceding calendar month. In the case of dealers regularly keeping books and accounts on the basis of an annual period which varies fifty-two to fifty-three weeks, the Tax Commissioner may make rules and regulations for reporting consistent with such accounting period.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a dealer may be required by the Tax Commissioner to file sales or use tax returns on an accounting period less frequent than monthly when, in the opinion of the Tax Commissioner, the administration of the taxes imposed by this chapter would be enhanced. If a dealer is required to file other than monthly, each such return shall be due on or before the twentieth day of the month following the close of the period. Each such return shall contain all information required for monthly returns.

A sales or use tax return shall be filed by each registered dealer even though the dealer is not liable to remit to the Tax Commissioner any tax for the period covered by the return.

B. 1. In addition to the amounts required under the provisions of this section and 58.1-616, any dealer as defined by 58.1-612 or direct payment permit holder pursuant to 58.1-624, with taxable sales and purchases of $1,300,000 or greater for the twelve-month period beginning July 1, and ending June 30 of the immediately preceding calendar year, shall be required to make a payment equal to 90 percent of the sales and use tax liability for the previous June. Such tax payments shall be made on or before the 30th day of June, if payment is made by electronic funds transfer, as defined in 58.1-202.1. If payment is made by other than electronic funds transfer, such payment shall be made on or before the 25th day of June. For purposes of this provision, taxable sales or purchases shall be computed without regard to the number of certificates of registration held by the dealer. Every dealer or direct payment permit holder shall be entitled to a credit for the payment under this subsection on the return for June of the current year due July 20. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to persons who are required to file only a Form ST-7, Consumer User Tax Return.

2. In lieu of the penalties provided in 58.1-635, except with respect to fraudulent returns, failure to make a timely payment or full payment of the sales and use tax liability as provided in this subsection shall subject the dealer or direct payment permit holder to a penalty of six percent of the amount of tax underpayment that should have been properly paid to the Tax Commissioner. Interest will accrue as provided in 58.1-15. The payment required by this subsection shall become delinquent on the first day following the due date set forth in this subsection if not paid.

3. This subsection shall be effective until June 1, 2005.

58.1-627. Bracket system for tax at rate of four percent.

The following Tax Commissioner shall prepare brackets of prices that shall be used for the collection of the tax imposed by this chapter: on sales of less than five dollars.

               $0.00      to     $0.14      no  tax
                 .15      to       .42      1»  tax
                 .43      to       .71      2»  tax
                 .72      to       .99      3»  tax
                1.00      to      1.28      4»  tax
                1.29      to      1.57      5»  tax
                1.58      to      1.85      6»  tax
                1.86      to      2.14      7»  tax
                2.15      to      2.42      8»  tax
                2.43      to      2.71      9»  tax
                2.72      to      2.99     10»  tax
                3.00      to      3.28     11»  tax
                3.29      to      3.57     12»  tax
                3.58      to      3.85     13»  tax
                3.86      to      4.14     14»  tax
                4.15      to      4.42     15»  tax
                4.43      to      4.71     16»  tax
                4.72      to      5.00     17»  tax

On transactions over five dollars greater than five dollars, the tax shall be computed at three and one-half four percent, one-half cent or more being treated as one cent. If a dealer can show to the satisfaction of the Tax Commissioner that more than eighty-five85 percent of the total dollar volume of his gross taxable sales during the taxable month was from individual sales at prices of ten 10 cents or less each, and that he was unable to adjust his prices in such manner as to prevent the economic incidence of the sales tax from falling on him, the Tax Commissioner shall determine the proper tax liability of the dealer based on that portion of the dealer's gross taxable sales which was from sales at prices of eleven cents or more.

58.1-628. Bracket system for combined state and local tax.

The following Tax Commissioner shall prepare brackets of prices that shall be used for the collection of the combined state and local tax: on sales of less than five dollars.

               $0.00      to     $0.11      no  tax
                 .12      to       .33      1»  tax
                 .34      to       .55      2»  tax
                 .56      to       .77      3»  tax
                 .78      to       .99      4»  tax
                1.00      to      1.22      5»  tax
                1.23      to      1.44      6»  tax
                1.45      to      1.66      7»  tax
                1.67      to      1.88      8»  tax
                1.89      to      2.11      9»  tax
                2.12      to      2.33     10»  tax
                2.34      to      2.55     11»  tax
                2.56      to      2.77     12»  tax
                2.78      to      2.99     13»  tax
                3.00      to      3.22     14»  tax
                3.23      to      3.44     15»  tax
                3.45      to      3.66     16»  tax
                3.67      to      3.88     17»  tax
                3.89      to      4.11     18»  tax
                4.12      to      4.33     19»  tax
                4.34      to      4.55     20»  tax
                4.56      to      4.77     21»  tax
                4.78      to      5.00     22»  tax

On transactions over five dollars greater than five dollars, the tax shall be computed at four and one-half five percent, one half cent or more being treated as one cent. The foregoing bracket system shall not relieve the dealer from the duty and liability to remit an amount equal to four and one-half five percent of his gross taxable sales as provided in this chapter. If the dealer, however, can show to the satisfaction of the Tax Commissioner that more than eighty-five85 percent of the total dollar volume of his gross taxable sales during the taxable month was from individual sales at prices of ten 10 cents or less each and that he was unable to adjust his prices in such manner as to prevent the economic incidence of the sales tax from falling on him, the Tax Commissioner shall determine the proper tax liability of the dealer based on that portion of the dealer's gross taxable sales which was from sales at prices of eleven 11 cents or more.

58.1-639. Transitional provisions.

A. To the extent of any increase in the state sales and use tax rate enacted by the 1986 2004 Special Session of the Virginia General Assembly, the Tax Commissioner, upon application of the purchaser in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Commissioner, shall have the authority to refund state sales or use taxes paid on purchases of tangible personal property made pursuant to bona fide real estate construction contracts, contracts for the sale of tangible personal property, and leases, provided that the real estate construction contract, contract for the sale of tangible personal property or lease is entered into prior to the date of enactment of the increase of the state sales and use tax rate; and further provided that the date of delivery of the tangible personal property is on or before March 30, 1987 December 31, 2004. The term "bona fide contract," when used in this section in relation to real estate construction contracts, shall include but not be limited to those contracts which are entered into prior to the enactment of the increase in the state sales and use tax rate, provided that such contracts include plans and specifications.

B. Notwithstanding the foregoing March 30, 1987 December 31, 2004, delivery date requirement, with respect to bona fide real estate construction contracts which contain a specific and stated date of completion, the date of delivery of such tangible personal property shall be on or before the completion date of the applicable project.

C. Applications for refunds pursuant to this section shall be made in accordance with the provisions of 58.1-1823. Interest computed in accordance with 58.1-1833 shall be added to the tax refunded pursuant to this section.

58.1-801. Deeds generally; charter amendments.

A. On every deed admitted to record, except a deed exempt from taxation by law, there is hereby levied a state recordation tax. The rate of the tax shall be fifteen 25 cents on every $100 or fraction thereof of the consideration of the deed or the actual value of the property conveyed, whichever is greater.

Upon deeds conveying property lying partly within the Commonwealth and partly without the Commonwealth, the tax herein imposed shall apply only to the value of so much of the property conveyed as is situated within the Commonwealth.

B. When the charter of a corporation is amended, and the only effect of such amendment is to change the corporate name of such corporation, the tax upon the recordation of a deed conveying to, or vesting in, such corporation under its changed name, the title to any or all of the real or personal property of such corporation held in its name as it existed immediately prior to such amendment, shall be fifty 50 cents.

58.1-803. Deeds of trust or mortgages; maximum tax.

A. A recordation tax on deeds of trust or mortgages is hereby imposed at a rate of 15 25¢ on every $100 or portion thereof of the amount of bonds or other obligations secured thereby. In the event of an open or revolving deed of trust, the amount of the obligation for purposes of this section shall be the maximum amount which may be outstanding at any one time. In any case in which the amount which may be secured under a deed of trust or mortgage is not ascertainable, the tax shall be based upon the fair market value of the property conveyed, determined as of the date of the deed of trust or mortgage. The fair market value of the property shall include the value of any realty required by the terms of the deed of trust or mortgage to be constructed thereon.

B. On deeds of trust or mortgages upon the works and property of a railroad lying partly within the Commonwealth and partly without the Commonwealth, the tax shall be only upon such proportion of the amount of bonds, or other obligations secured thereby, as the number of miles of the line of such company in the Commonwealth bears to the whole number of miles of the line of such company conveyed by such deed of trust or mortgage.

Upon deeds of trust or mortgages conveying other property lying partly within the Commonwealth and partly without the Commonwealth the tax herein imposed shall be only upon such proportion of the debt secured as the value of the property located within the Commonwealth, or which may be brought into the Commonwealth, bears to the entire amount of property conveyed by such deed of trust or mortgage.

C. On deeds of trust or mortgages, which provide for an initial issue of bonds, to be followed thereafter by additional bonds, unlimited in amount, if such deed of trust or mortgage provides that as and when such additional bonds are issued a supplemental indenture shall be recorded in the office in which the original deed of trust or mortgage is first recorded, which supplement shall contain a statement as to the amount of the additional bonds to be issued, then the tax shall be paid upon the initial amount of bonds when the original deed of trust is recorded and thereafter on each additional amount of bonds when the supplemental indenture relating to such additional bonds is recorded.

On deeds of trust or mortgages which are supplemental to or wrap around existing deeds of trust on which the tax imposed hereunder has already been paid, the tax shall be paid only on that portion of the face amount of the bond or obligation secured thereby which is in addition to the amount of the existing debt secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on which tax has been paid. The instrument shall certify the amount of the existing debt.

D. On deeds of trust or mortgages, the purpose of which is to refinance or modify the terms of an existing debt with the same lender, which debt is secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on which the tax imposed hereunder has been paid, the tax shall be paid only on that portion of the amount of the bond or other obligation secured thereby which is in addition to the amount of the original debt secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on which the tax has been paid. The instrument shall certify the amount of original debt.

E. The maximum tax on the recordation of any deed of trust or mortgage or on any indenture supplemental thereto shall be determined in accordance with the following schedule:

On the first 10 million dollars of value as determined pursuant to this section, 15 25¢ upon every $100 or portion thereof;

On the next 10 million dollars of value as determined pursuant to this section, 12 22¢ upon every $100 or portion thereof;

On the next 10 million dollars of value as determined pursuant to this section, 9 19¢ upon every $100 or portion thereof;

On the next 10 million dollars of value as determined pursuant to this section, 6 16¢ upon every $100 or portion thereof; and

On all over 40 million dollars of value as determined pursuant to this section, 3 13¢ upon every $100 or portion thereof, incorporated into this section.

58.1-807. Contracts generally; leases.

A. Except as hereinafter provided, on every contract or memorandum thereof relating to real or personal property admitted to record, a recordation tax is hereby levied at the rate of fifteen 25 cents on every $100 or fraction thereof of the consideration or value contracted for.

B. The recordation of a deed of lease for a term of years, or assignment of the lessee's interest therein, or memorandum thereof, shall be taxed according to the provisions of this section, unless provided otherwise in 58.1-809 or unless the annual rental, multiplied by the term for which the lease runs, or remainder thereof, equals or exceeds the actual value of the property leased. In such cases the tax for recording the deed of lease shall be based upon the actual value of the property at the date of lease, including the value of any realty required by the terms of the lease to be constructed thereon by the lessor.

C. The recordation of an assignment of the lessor's interest in a lease, or memorandum thereof, shall be taxed according to the provisions of this section, unless the assignment of the lessor's interest in the lease is to provide additional security for an obligation of the lessor on which the tax has been previously paid, or the assignment of the lessor's interest is made to the person who owns the property which is subject to the lease. In such cases there shall be no tax for recording the lessor's assignment of the lease.

D. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, the tax on the recordation of leases of oil and gas rights shall not exceed twenty-five dollars $25. The tax on the recordation of leases of coal and other mineral rights shall not exceed fifty dollars $50.

E. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, the tax on the recordation of leases of outdoor advertising signs owned by a person engaged in the business of outdoor advertising licensed by the Virginia Department of Transportation pursuant to 33.1-361 shall not exceed twenty-five dollars $25.

58.1-808. Sales contracts for the sale of rolling stock or equipment.

On every contract or agreement admitted to record relating to the sale of rolling stock or equipment, whether the title is reserved in the vendor or not, with a railroad corporation or other corporation or with a person, firm or company, the tax shall be 15 25¢ on every $100 or fraction thereof of the amount contracted for in such contract or agreement. When such contract or agreement is with a railroad corporation lying partly within the Commonwealth and partly without the Commonwealth, the tax shall be upon such proportion of the amount contracted for as the number of miles of the line of such railroad corporation in the Commonwealth bears to the whole number of miles of line of such railroad corporation.

58.1-901. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context clearly shows otherwise, the term or phrase:

"Decedent" means a deceased person.

"Federal credit" means the maximum amount of the credit for state death taxes allowable by 2011 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended or renumbered, or successor provision, in respect to a decedent's taxable estate. The term "maximum amount" shall be construed as to take full advantage of such credit as the laws of the United States may allow. In no event, however, shall such amount be less than the federal credit allowable by 2011 of the Internal Revenue Code as it existed on January 1, 1978. In the case of a decedent dying on or after November 1, 2004, and before January 1, 2005, the federal credit shall be deemed to be zero for purposes of the Virginia estate tax.

"Gross estate" means "gross estate" as defined in 2031 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended or renumbered, or the successor provision of the laws of the United States.

"Nonresident" means a decedent who was domiciled outside of the Commonwealth of Virginia at his death.

"Personal representative" means the personal representative of the estate of the decedent, appointed, qualified and acting within the Commonwealth, or, if there is no personal representative appointed, qualified and acting within the Commonwealth, then any person in actual or constructive possession of the Virginia gross estate of the decedent.

"Resident" means a decedent who was domiciled in the Commonwealth of Virginia at his death.

"State" means any state, territory or possession of the United States and the District of Columbia.

"Taxable estate" means "taxable estate" as defined in 2051 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended or renumbered, or the successor provision of the laws of the United States.

"Value" means "value" as finally determined for federal estate tax purposes under the laws of the United States relating to federal estate taxes.

Any reference in this chapter to the laws of the United States relating to federal estate and gift taxes means the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, and amendments thereto, and other provisions of the laws of the United States relating to federal estate and gift taxes, as the same may be or become effective at any time or from time to time.

58.1-1001. Tax levied; rate; transitional provisions; bonds and letters of credit.

A. In addition to all other taxes now imposed by law, every person within this Commonwealth who sells, stores or receives cigarettes made of tobacco or any substitute thereof, for the purpose of distribution to any person within this Commonwealth, shall pay to this Commonwealth an excise tax of one and one-quarter mills 1.25 cents on each such cigarette through June 30, 2005. On and after July 1, 2005, the rate of such tax shall be 1.5 cents per cigarette.

B. The Tax Commissioner shall establish guidelines and rules for the transitional procedures regarding the imposition of the increased cigarette tax rate under this section. The guidelines and rules issued by the Tax Commissioner regarding the imposition of the increased cigarette tax rate shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (2.2-4000 et seq.).

C. The Tax Commissioner, in his sole discretion, may accept (i) a bond with a corporate surety or (ii) an irrevocable letter of credit from any person holding a current permit issued pursuant to 58.1-1011 and provide to that person Virginia revenue stamps without concurrent payment of the tax imposed under this chapter. The Tax Commissioner shall establish guidelines and rules for such bonds and letters of credit. Such guidelines and rules shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act ( 2.2-4000 et seq.). The Tax Commissioner, in his sole discretion, may require any person to pay the tax imposed under this chapter concurrent with obtaining revenue stamps from the Department, regardless of whether or not such person has filed or agreed to file a bond or letter of credit.

58.1-3833. County food and beverage tax.

A. Any county is hereby authorized to levy a tax on food and beverages sold, for human consumption, by a restaurant, as such term is defined in subdivision 9 of 35.1-1, not to exceed eight and one-half percent, when added to the state and local general sales and use tax, four percent of the amount charged for such food and beverages. Such tax shall not be levied on food and beverages sold through vending machines or by any person described in subdivisions 1, 2, 3, and 5 of 35.1-25, as well as nonprofit cafeterias in public schools, nursing homes, and hospitals. Grocery stores and convenience stores selling prepared foods ready for human consumption at a delicatessen counter shall be subject to the tax, for that portion of the grocery store or convenience store selling such items.

This tax shall be levied only if the tax is approved in a referendum within the county which shall be held in accordance with 24.2-684 and initiated either by a resolution of the board of supervisors or on the filing of a petition signed by a number of registered voters of the county equal in number to 10 percent of the number of voters registered in the county, as appropriate on January 1 of the year in which the petition is filed with the court of such county. The clerk of the circuit court shall publish notice of the election in a newspaper of general circulation in the county once a week for three consecutive weeks prior to the election. If the voters affirm the levy of a local meals tax, the tax shall be effective in an amount and on such terms as the governing body may by ordinance prescribe. If such resolution of the board of supervisors or such petition states for what projects and/or purposes the revenues collected from the tax are to be used, then the question on the ballot for the referendum shall include language stating for what projects and/or purposes the revenues collected from the tax are to be used.

The term "beverage" as set forth herein shall mean alcoholic beverages as defined in 4.1-100 and nonalcoholic beverages served as part of a meal. The tax shall be in addition to the sales tax currently imposed by the county pursuant to the authority of Chapter 6 ( 58.1-600 et seq.) of this title. Collection of such tax shall be in a manner prescribed by the governing body.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of this section, any county with a population of at least 70,000 but no more than 100,000, any county with a population of at least 17,910 but no more than 18,000, any county with a population of at least 34,000 but no more than 34,400, and any county having a county manager plan of government are hereby authorized to levy a tax on food and beverages sold for human consumption by a restaurant, as such term is defined in 35.1-1 and as modified in subsection A above and subject to the same exemptions, not to exceed four percent of the amount charged for such food and beverages, provided that the governing body of the respective county holds a public hearing before adopting a local food and beverage tax, and the governing body by unanimous vote adopts such tax by local ordinance. The tax shall be effective in an amount and on such terms as the governing body may by ordinance prescribe.

C. Nothing herein contained shall affect any authority heretofore granted to any county, city or town to levy a meals tax. The county tax limitations imposed pursuant to 58.1-3711 shall apply to any tax levied under this section, mutatis mutandis. All food and beverage tax collections and all meals tax collections shall be deemed to be held in trust for the county, city or town imposing the applicable tax. The wrongful and fraudulent use of such collections other than remittance of the same as provided by law shall constitute embezzlement pursuant to 18.2-111.

D. No county which has heretofore adopted an ordinance pursuant to subsection A of this section shall be required to submit an amendment to its meals tax ordinance to the voters in a referendum.

E. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, no locality shall levy any tax under this section upon alcoholic beverages sold in factory sealed containers and purchased for off-premises consumption or food purchased for human consumption as "food" is defined in the Food Stamp Act of 1977, 7 U.S.C. 2012, as amended, and federal regulations adopted pursuant to that act, except for the following items: sandwiches, salad bar items sold from a salad bar, prepackaged single-serving salads consisting primarily of an assortment of vegetables, and nonfactory sealed beverages.

1. That 58.1-390 and 58.1-394 of the Code of Virginia are repealed.

2. That the provisions of this act amending 58.1-302, 58.1-391, 58.1-392, 58.1-402, and 58.1-441 of the Code of Virginia and adding 58.1-390.1, 58.1-393.1, 58.1-394.1, 58.1-394.2 and 58.1-395 to the Code of Virginia shall apply for taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004.

3. That the provisions of this act amending 58.1-901 of the Code of Virginia shall apply only to the estates of those persons who die on or after November 1, 2004.

4. That notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, any public utility that is subject to a sales and use tax on tangible personal property purchased or leased for use or consumption by such utility in the rendition of its service as a public utility is hereby authorized to recover from each customer that customer's pro rata share of the public utility's actual expense therefor by means of a sales and use tax surcharge to recover any sales and use tax expenditures that are incurred as a result of the elimination of the public utility's exemption from taxation pursuant to 58.1-609.3. In determining the amount of surcharge and in imposing the same, the public utility is not required to initiate a rate case hearing. However, the amount of the surcharge shall be verified by the State Corporation Commission in the year subsequent to the surcharge. If the State Corporation Commission determines that the amount of the surcharge exceeded the actual sales and use tax incurred as a result of the amendments to 58.1-609.3, a surcharge adjustment shall be applied in the following year to return the overcharge to customers.

5. That the provisions of this act shall not become effective unless a general appropriaton act is enacted by the General Assembly for the 2004-2006 biennium.