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Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Virginia:
§ 32.1-46. Immunization of patients against certain diseases.
A. The parent, guardian or person standing in loco parentis of each child within this Commonwealth shall cause such child to be immunized in accordance with the Immunization Schedule developed and published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). The required immunizations for attendance at a public or private elementary, middle or secondary school, child care center, nursery school, family day care home or developmental center shall be those set forth in the State Board of Health Regulations for the Immunization of School Children. The Board's regulations shall at a minimum require:
1. A minimum of three properly spaced doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB).
2. A minimum of three or more properly spaced doses of diphtheria toxoid. One dose shall be administered on or after the fourth birthday.
3. A minimum of three or more properly spaced doses of tetanus toxoid. One dose shall be administered on or after the fourth birthday.
4. A minimum of three or more properly spaced doses of acellular pertussis vaccine. One dose shall be administered on or after the fourth birthday. A booster dose shall be administered prior to entry into the sixth grade.
5. Two or three primary doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, depending on the manufacturer, for children up to 60 months of age.
6. Two properly spaced doses of live attenuated measles (rubeola) vaccine. The first dose shall be administered at age 12 months or older.
7. One dose of live attenuated rubella vaccine shall be administered at age 12 months or older.
8. One dose of live attenuated mumps vaccine shall be administered at age 12 months or older.
9. All children born on and after January 1, 1997, shall be required to have one dose of varicella vaccine on or after 12 months.
10. Three or more properly spaced doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). One dose shall be administered on or after the fourth birthday. A fourth dose shall be required if the three dose primary series consisted of a combination of OPV and IPV.
11. One to four doses, dependent on age at first dose, of properly spaced pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) vaccine for children up to 60 months of age.
12. Three doses of properly spaced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for females. The first dose shall be administered before the child enters the sixth grade.
The parent, guardian or person standing in loco parentis may have such child immunized by a physician or registered nurse or may present the child to the appropriate local health department, which shall administer the vaccines required by the State Board of Health Regulations for the Immunization of School Children without charge to the parent of or person standing in loco parentis to the child if (i) the child is eligible for the Vaccines for Children Program or (ii) the child is eligible for coverages issued pursuant to Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1395 et seq. (Medicare), Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1396 et seq. (Medicaid), Title XXI of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1397aa et seq. (CHIP), or 10 U.S.C. § 1071 et seq. (CHAMPUS). In all cases in which a child is covered by a health carrier, Medicare, Medicaid, CHIP, or CHAMPUS, the Department shall seek reimbursement from the health carrier, Medicare, Medicaid, CHIP, or CHAMPUS for all allowable costs associated with the provision of the vaccine. For the purposes of this section, the Department shall be deemed a participating provider with a managed care health insurance plan as defined in § 32.1-137.1.
B. A physician, registered nurse or local health department administering a vaccine required by this section shall provide to the person who presents the child for immunizations a certificate that shall state the diseases for which the child has been immunized, the numbers of doses given, the dates when administered and any further immunizations indicated.
C. The vaccines required by this section shall meet the standards prescribed in, and be administered in accordance with, regulations of the Board.
D. The provisions of this section shall not apply if
vaccine is medically contraindicated. 1. The parent or
guardian of the child objects thereto on the grounds that the administration of
immunizing agents conflicts with his religious tenets or practices, unless an
emergency or epidemic of disease has been declared by the Board; 2. The parent or
guardian presents a statement from a physician licensed to practice medicine in
Virginia, a licensed nurse practitioner, or a local health department that
states that the physical condition of the child is such that the administration
of one or more of the required immunizing agents would be detrimental to the
health of the child; or 3. E. Because the human papillomavirus is not communicable in a school
setting, a parent or guardian, at the parent's or guardian's sole discretion, may elect for the parent's or
guardian's child not to receive the human papillomavirus vaccine, after having
reviewed materials describing the link between the human papillomavirus and
cervical cancer approved for such use by the Board. E. F. For the
purpose of protecting the public health by ensuring that each child receives
age-appropriate immunizations, any physician, physician assistant, nurse
practitioner, licensed institutional health care provider, local or district
health department, the Virginia Immunization Information System, and the
Department of Health may share immunization and patient locator information
without parental authorization, including, but not limited to, the month, day,
and year of each administered immunization; the patient's name, address,
telephone number, birth date, and social security number; and the parents'
names. The immunization information; the patient's name, address, telephone
number, birth date, and social security number; and the parents' names shall be
confidential and shall only be shared for the purposes set out in this
subsection. F. G. The
State Board of Health shall review this section annually and make
recommendations for revision by September 1 to the Governor, the General
Assembly, and the Joint Commission on Health Care.
§ 32.1-46.01. Virginia Immunization Information System.
A. The Board of Health shall establish the Virginia Immunization Information System (VIIS), a statewide immunization registry that consolidates patient immunization histories from birth to death into a complete, accurate, and definitive record that may be made available to participating health care providers throughout Virginia, to the extent funds are appropriated by the General Assembly or otherwise made available. The purposes of VIIS shall be to (i) protect the public health of all citizens of the Commonwealth, (ii) prevent under- and over-immunization of children, (iii) ensure up-to-date recommendations for immunization scheduling to health care providers and the Board, (iv) generate parental reminder and recall notices and manufacturer recalls, (v) develop immunization coverage reports, (vi) identify areas of under-immunized population, and (vii) provide, in the event of a public health emergency, a mechanism for tracking the distribution and administration of immunizations, immune globulins, or other preventive medications or emergency treatments.
B. The Board of Health shall promulgate regulations to implement the VIIS that shall address:
1. Registration of voluntary participants, including, but not limited to, a list of those health care entities that are authorized to participate and any forms and agreements necessary for compliance with the regulations concerning patient privacy promulgated by the federal Department of Health and Human Services;
2. Procedures for confirming, continuing, and terminating participation and disciplining any participant for unauthorized use or disclosure of any VIIS data;
3. Procedures, timelines, and formats for reporting of immunizations by participants;
4. Procedures to provide for a secure system of data entry that may include encrypted online data entry or secure delivery of data files;
5. Procedures for incorporating the data reported on
children's immunizations pursuant to subsection
of § 32.1-46;
6. The patient identifying data to be reported, including, but not limited to, the patient's name, date of birth, gender, telephone number, home address, birth place, and mother's maiden name;
7. The patient immunization information to be reported, including, but not necessarily limited to, the type of immunization administered (specified by current procedural terminology (CPT) code or Health Level 7 (HL7) code); date of administration; identity of administering person; lot number; and if present, any contraindications, or religious or medical exemptions;
8. Mechanisms for entering into data-sharing agreements with other state and regional immunization registries for the exchange, on a periodic nonemergency basis and in the event of a public health emergency, of patient immunization information, after receiving, in writing, satisfactory assurances for the preservation of confidentiality, a clear description of the data requested, specific details on the intended use of the data, and the identities of the persons with whom the data will be shared;
9. Procedures for the use of vital statistics data, including, but not necessarily limited to, the linking of birth certificates and death certificates;
10. Procedures for requesting immunization records that are in compliance with the requirements for disclosing health records set forth in § 32.1-127.1:03; such procedures shall address the approved uses for the requested data, to whom the data may be disclosed, and information on the provisions for disclosure of health records pursuant to § 32.1-127.1:03;
11. Procedures for releasing aggregate data, from which personal identifying data has been removed or redacted, to qualified persons for purposes of research, statistical analysis, and reporting; and
12. Procedures for the Commissioner of Health to access and release, as necessary, the data contained in VIIS in the event of an epidemic or an outbreak of any vaccine-preventable disease or the potential epidemic or epidemic of any disease of public health importance, public health significance, or public health threat for which a treatment or vaccine exists.
The Board's regulations shall also include any necessary definitions for the operation of VIIS; however, "health care entity," "health care plan," and "health care provider" shall be as defined in subsection B of § 32.1-127.1:03.
C. The establishment and implementation of VIIS is hereby declared to be a necessary public health activity to ensure the integrity of the health care system in Virginia and to prevent serious harm and serious threats to the health and safety of individuals and the public. Pursuant to the regulations concerning patient privacy promulgated by the federal Department of Health and Human Services, covered entities may disclose protected health information to the secure system established for VIIS without obtaining consent or authorization for such disclosure. Such protected health information shall be used exclusively for the purposes established in this section.
D. The Board and Commissioner of Health, any employees of the health department, any voluntary participant, and any person authorized to report or disclose immunization data hereunder shall be immune from civil liability in connection therewith unless such person acted with gross negligence or malicious intent.
E. This section shall not diminish the responsibility of any physician or other person to maintain accurate patient immunization data or the responsibility of any parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis to cause a child to be immunized in accordance with the provisions of § 32.1-46. Further, this section shall not be construed to require the immunization of any person who objects thereto on the grounds that the administration of immunizing agents conflicts with his religious tenets or practices, or any person for whom administration of immunizing agents would be detrimental to his health.
F. The Commissioner may authorize linkages between VIIS and other secure electronic databases that contain health records reported to the Department of Health, subject to all state and federal privacy laws and regulations. These health records may include newborn screening results reported pursuant to § 32.1-65, newborn hearing screening results reported pursuant to § 32.1-64.1, and blood-lead level screening results reported pursuant to § 32.1-46.1. Health care providers authorized to use VIIS may view the health records of individuals to whom the providers are providing health care services.