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Article 2
Operational and Monitoring Requirements

9VAC25-32-356. Pollutant monitoring and limits.

A. Bulk biosolids or biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container shall be monitored for the parameters identified in Table 1 of this section:

TABLE 1
PARAMETERS for BIOSOLIDS ANALYSIS(1)

Pollutant

Percent solids (%)

Volatile solids (%)

pH (standard units)

Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (%)

Ammonia nitrogen (%)

Nitrates (mg/kg)

Total phosphorus (%)

Total potassium (%)

Alkalinity as CaCO3 (mg/kg)(2)

Arsenic (mg/kg)

Cadmium (mg/kg)

Copper (mg/kg)

Lead (mg/kg)

Mercury (mg/kg)

Molybdenum (mg/kg)

Nickel (mg/kg)

Selenium (mg/kg)

Zinc (mg/kg)

(1)Values reported on a dry weight basis unless indicated.

(2)Lime treated biosolids (10% or more lime by weight) shall be analyzed for percent CaCO3.

B. Biosolids pollutant limits.

1. Bulk biosolids or biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container shall not be applied to the land if the concentration of any pollutant in the biosolids exceeds the ceiling concentration for the pollutant in Table 2 of this section.

2. If bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, either:

a. The cumulative loading rate for each pollutant shall not exceed the cumulative pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 3 of this section; or

b. The concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 4 of this section.

3. If bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden, the concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 4 of this section.

4. If biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, either:

a. The concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 4 of this section; or

b. The product of the concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids and the annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids shall not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 5 of this section to be exceeded. The procedure used to determine the annual whole sludge application rate is presented in subsection D of this section.

C. Pollutant concentrations and loading rates - biosolids.

TABLE 2
CEILING CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Ceiling Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

75

Cadmium

85

Copper

4,300

Lead

840

Mercury

57

Molybdenum

75

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

7,500

*Dry weight basis

 

TABLE 3
CUMULATIVE POLLUTANT LOADING RATES(1)

 

Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate

Pollutant

(kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic(2)

41

36

Cadmium

39

35

Copper

1,500

1,340

Lead

300

270

Mercury

17

16

Molybdenum(2)

 

 

Nickel

420

375

Selenium

100

89

Zinc

2,800

2,500

Notes:(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soil mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil background pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application is currently under study by USEPA. Research suggests that for Molybdenum a cumulative pollutant loading rate below 40 kg/hectare may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals.

 

TABLE 4
POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Monthly Average Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

41

Cadmium

39

Copper

1,500

Lead

300

Mercury

17

Molybdenum(1)

 

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

2,800

*Dry weight basis

Note: (1) The monthly average concentration is currently under study by USEPA. Research suggests that a monthly average Molybdenum concentration below 40 mg/kg may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals.

 

TABLE 5
ANNUAL POLLUTANT LOADING RATES (1)

 

Annual Pollutant Loading Rate
(per 365-day period)

Pollutant

(kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic (2)

2.0

1.8

Cadmium

1.9

1.7

Copper

75

67

Lead

15

13

Mercury

0.85

0.76

Molybdenum(2)

 

 

Nickel

21

19

Selenium

5.0

4.6

Zinc

140

125

Notes:(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soil mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil background pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application is currently under study by USEPA.

D. Procedures to determine the annual whole sludge application rate (AWSAR) for biosolids. Subdivision B 4 b of this section requires that the product of the concentration for each pollutant listed in Table 4 of this section in biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land and the AWSAR for the biosolids not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 5 to be exceeded. This subsection contains that procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a biosolids that does not cause the annual pollutant loading rates (APLR) in Table 5 of this section to be exceeded.

1. The relationship between the APLR for a pollutant and the AWSAR for a biosolids is shown in equation (1):

 

EQUATION (1)

 

APLR = C X AWSAR X 0.001

 

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

 

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

 

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

 

0.001 = A conversion factor

2. To determine the AWSAR, equation (1) is rearranged into equation (2):

 

EQUATION (2)

 

AWSAR = APLR/(C X 0.001)

 

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

 

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

 

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

 

0.001 = A conversion factor

3. The procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a biosolids is presented below:

a. Analyze a sample of the biosolids to determine the concentration for each of the pollutants listed in Table 4 of this section in the biosolids.

b. Using the pollutant concentrations from subdivision 3 a of this subsection and the APLRs from Table 5 of this section, calculate an AWSAR for each pollutant using Equation (2) above.

c. The AWSAR for the biosolids is the lowest AWSAR calculated in subdivision 3 b of this subsection.

Statutory Authority

62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.


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