A. The following words and terms, when used in this chapter and in VPA permits issued under this chapter, shall have the meanings defined in the State Water Control Law, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise and as follows:
"Active sewage sludge unit" means a sewage sludge unit that has not closed.
"Aerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge into carbon dioxide and water by microorganisms in the presence of air.
"Agricultural land" means land on which a food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop is grown. This includes range land and land used as pasture.
"Agricultural storm water discharge" means a precipitation-related discharge of manure, litter, or process wastewater that has been applied on land areas under the control of an animal feeding operation or under the control of an animal waste end-user in accordance with a nutrient management plan approved by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation and in accordance with site specific nutrient management practices that ensure appropriate agricultural utilization of the nutrients in the manure, litter, or process wastewater.
"Agronomic rate" means, in regard to biosolids, the whole sludge application rate (dry weight basis) designed: (i) to provide the amount of nitrogen needed by the food crop, feed crop, fiber crop, cover crop, or vegetation grown on the land and (ii) to minimize the amount of nitrogen in the biosolids that passes below the root zone of the crop or vegetation grown on the land to the groundwater.
"Anaerobic digestion" means the biochemical decomposition of organic matter in sewage sludge or biosolids into methane gas and carbon dioxide by microorganisms in the absence of air.
"Animal feeding operation" means a lot or facility where the following conditions are met:
1. Animals have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period; and
2. Crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the operation of the lot or facility.
Two or more animal feeding operations under common ownership are a single animal feeding operation for the purposes of determining the number of animals at an operation if they adjoin each other or if they use a common area or system for the disposal of wastes.
"Animal waste" means liquid, semisolid, and solid animal manure and process wastewater, compost, or sludges associated with animal feeding operations including the final treated wastes generated by a digester or other manure treatment technologies.
"Animal waste end-user" means any recipient of transferred animal waste who stores or who utilizes the waste as fertilizer, fuel, feedstock, livestock feed, or other beneficial use for an operation under his control.
"Animal waste fact sheet" means the document that details the requirements regarding utilization, storage, and management of animal waste by end-users. The fact sheet is approved by the department.
"Annual pollutant loading rate" or "APLR" means the maximum amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.
"Annual whole sludge application rate" or "AWSAR" means the maximum amount of biosolids (dry weight basis) that can be applied to a unit area of land during a 365-day period.
"Apply biosolids" or "biosolids applied to the land" means land application of biosolids.
"Beneficial use" means a use that is of benefit as a substitute for natural or commercial products and does not contribute to adverse effects on health or the environment.
"Best Management Practices (BMP)" means a schedule of activities, prohibition of practices, maintenance procedures and other management practices to prevent or reduce the pollution of state waters. BMPs include treatment requirements, operating and maintenance procedures, schedule of activities, prohibition of activities, and other management practices to control plant site runoff, spillage, leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.
"Biosolids" means a sewage sludge that has received an established treatment and is managed in a manner to meet the required pathogen control and vector attraction reduction, and contains concentrations of regulated pollutants below the ceiling limits established in 40 CFR Part 503 and 9VAC25-32-356, such that it meets the standards established for use of biosolids for land application, marketing, or distribution in accordance with this regulation. Liquid biosolids contains less than 15% dry residue by weight. Dewatered biosolids contains 15% or more dry residue by weight.
"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board.
"Bulk biosolids" means biosolids that are not sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.
"Bypass" means intentional diversion of waste streams from any portion of a treatment works.
"Confined animal feeding operation," for the purposes of this regulation, has the same meaning as an "animal feeding operation."
"Confined poultry feeding operation" means any confined animal feeding operation with 200 or more animal units of poultry. This equates to 20,000 chickens or 11,000 turkeys regardless of animal age or sex.
"Critical areas" and "critical waters" mean areas and waters in proximity to shellfish waters, a public water supply, or recreation or other waters where health or water quality concerns are identified by the Department of Health.
"Cumulative pollutant loading rate" means the maximum amount of an inorganic pollutant that can be applied to an area of land.
"Density of microorganisms" means the number of microorganisms per unit mass of total solids (dry weight) in the sewage sludge.
"Department" means the Department of Environmental Quality.
"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality, or an authorized representative.
"Discharge" means, when used without qualification, a discharge of a pollutant.
"Discharge of a pollutant" means any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to state waters or waters of the contiguous zone or ocean other than discharge from a vessel or other floating craft when being used as a means of transportation.
"Domestic septage" means either liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, portable toilet, Type III marine sanitation device, or similar treatment works that receives only domestic sewage. Domestic septage does not include liquid or solid material removed from a septic tank, cesspool, or similar treatment works that receives either commercial wastewater or industrial wastewater and does not include grease removed from a grease trap at a restaurant.
"Domestic sewage" means waste and wastewater from humans or household operations that is discharged to or otherwise enters a treatment works.
"Draft VPA permit" means a document indicating the board's tentative decision to issue, deny, modify, revoke and reissue, terminate or reissue a VPA permit. A notice of intent to terminate a VPA permit and a notice of intent to deny a VPA permit are types of draft VPA permits. A denial of a request for modification, revocation and reissuance or termination is not a draft VPA permit.
"Dry tons" means dry weight established as representative of land applied biosolids or industrial residuals and expressed in units of English tons.
"Dry weight" means the measured weight of a sample of sewage sludge, biosolids, or industrial residuals after all moisture has been removed in accordance with the standard methods of testing and often represented as percent solids.
"Dry weight basis" means calculated on the basis of having been dried at 105°C until reaching a constant mass (i.e., essentially 100% solids content).
"Exceptional quality biosolids" means biosolids that have received an established level of treatment for pathogen control and vector attraction reduction and contain known levels of pollutants, such that they may be marketed or distributed for public use in accordance with this regulation.
"Facilities" means, in regard to biosolids, processes, equipment, storage devices and dedicated sites, located or operated separately from a treatment works, utilized for sewage sludge management including, but not limited to, handling, treatment, transport, and storage of biosolids.
"Fact sheet" means the document that details the requirements regarding utilization, storage, and management of poultry waste by poultry waste end-users and poultry waste brokers. The fact sheet is approved by the department in consultation with the Department of Conservation and Recreation.
"Feed crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by animals.
"Fiber crops" means crops produced primarily for the manufacture of textiles, such as flax and cotton.
"Field" means an area of land within a site where land application is proposed or permitted.
"Food crops" means crops produced primarily for consumption by humans. These include, but are not limited to, fruits, vegetables, and tobacco.
"Forest" means a tract of land thick with trees and underbrush.
"General VPA permit" means a VPA permit issued by the board authorizing a category of pollutant management activities.
"Generator" means the owner of a sewage treatment works that produces sewage sludge and biosolids.
"Groundwater" means water below the land surface in the saturated zone.
"Industrial residuals" means solid or semisolid industrial waste including solids, residues, and precipitates separated or created by the unit processes of a device or system used to treat industrial wastes.
"Industrial wastes" means liquid or other wastes resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade, or business, or from the development of any natural resources.
"Land application" means, in regard to sewage, biosolids, and industrial residuals, the distribution of treated wastewater, referred to as "effluent," stabilized sewage sludge, referred to as "biosolids," or industrial residuals by spreading or spraying on the surface of the land, injecting below the surface of the land, or incorporating into the soil with a uniform application rate for the purpose of fertilizing crops or vegetation or conditioning the soil. Sites approved for land application of biosolids in accordance with this regulation are not to be considered to be treatment works. Bulk disposal of stabilized sludge or industrial residuals in a confined area, such as in landfills, is not land application. For the purpose of this regulation, the use of biosolids in agricultural research and the distribution and marketing of exceptional quality biosolids are not land application.
"Land application area" means, in regard to biosolids, the area in the permitted field, excluding the setback areas, where biosolids may be applied.
"Land applier" means someone who land applies biosolids or industrial residuals pursuant to a valid permit from the department as set forth in this regulation.
"Land with a high potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses frequently. This includes, but is not limited to, a public contact site and a reclamation site located in a populated area (e.g., a construction site located in a city).
"Land with a low potential for public exposure" means land that the public uses infrequently. This includes, but is not limited to, agricultural land, forest, and a reclamation site located in an unpopulated area (e.g., a strip mine located in a rural area).
"Limitation" means any restriction imposed on quantities, rates or concentration of pollutants which are managed by pollutant management activities.
"Liner" means soil or synthetic material that has a hydraulic conductivity of 1 X 10-7 centimeters per second or less.
"Local monitor" means a person or persons employed by a local government to perform the duties of monitoring the operations of land appliers pursuant to a local ordinance.
"Malodor" means an unusually strong or offensive odor associated with biosolids or sewage sludge as distinguished from odors commonly associated with biosolids or sewage sludge.
"Monitoring report" means forms supplied by the department for use in reporting of self-monitoring results of the permittee.
"Monthly average" means the arithmetic mean of all measurements taken during the month.
"Municipality" means a city, county, town, district association, or other public body (including an intermunicipal agency of two or more of the foregoing entities) created by or under state law; an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization having jurisdiction over sewage sludge or biosolids management; or a designated and approved management agency under § 208 of the federal Clean Water Act, as amended. The definition includes a special district created under state law, such as a water district, sewer district, sanitary district, utility district, drainage district, or similar entity; or an integrated waste management facility as defined in § 201(e) of the federal Clean Water Act, as amended, that has as one of its principal responsibilities the treatment, transport, use, or disposal of sewage sludge or biosolids.
"Nonpoint source" means a source of pollution, such as a farm or forest land runoff, urban storm water runoff or mine runoff that is not collected or discharged as a point source.
"Odor sensitive receptor" means, in the context of land application of biosolids, any health care facility, such as hospitals, convalescent homes, etc. or a building or outdoor facility regularly used to host or serve large groups of people such as schools, dormitories, or athletic and other recreational facilities.
"Operate" means the act of any person who may have an impact on either the finished water quality at a waterworks or the final effluent at a sewage treatment works, such as to (i) place into or take out of service a unit process or unit processes, (ii) make or cause adjustments in the operation of a unit process or unit processes at a treatment works, or (iii) manage sewage sludge or biosolids.
"Operator" means any individual employed or appointed by any owner, and who is designated by such owner to be the person in responsible charge, such as a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and whose duties include testing or evaluation to control waterworks or wastewater works operations. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of waterworks or wastewater works.
"Other container" means either an open or closed receptacle. This includes, but is not limited to, a bucket, a box, a carton, and a vehicle or trailer with a load capacity of one metric ton or less.
"Overflow" means the unintentional discharge of wastes from any portion of a treatment works.
"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including sanitary districts, sanitation district commissions and authorities; federal agencies; any individual; any group of individuals acting individually or as a group; or any public or private institution, corporation, company, partnership, firm, or association that owns or proposes to own a sewerage system or treatment works as defined in § 62.1-44.3 of the Code of Virginia.
"Pasture" means land on which animals feed directly on feed crops such as legumes, grasses, grain stubble, or stover.
"Pathogenic organisms" means disease-causing organisms. These include, but are not limited to, certain bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and viable helminth ova.
"Permittee" means an owner or operator who has a currently effective VPA permit issued by the board or the department.
"Person who prepares biosolids" means either the person that generates biosolids during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works or the person that derives the material from sewage sludge.
"pH" means the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration measured at 25°C or measured at another temperature and then converted to an equivalent value at 25°C.
"Place sewage sludge" or "sewage sludge placed" means disposal of sewage sludge on a surface disposal site.
"Point source" means any discernible, defined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include return flows from irrigated agricultural land.
"Pollutant" means, in regard to wastewater, any substance, radioactive material, or heat which causes or contributes to, or may cause or contribute to, pollution. It does not mean (i) sewage from vessels; or (ii) water, gas, or other material which is injected into a well to facilitate production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil or gas production and disposed of in a well, if the well is used either to facilitate production or for disposal purposes if approved by Department of Mines Minerals and Energy unless the board determines that such injection or disposal will result in the degradation of ground or surface water resources.
"Pollutant" means, in regard to sewage sludge or biosolids, an organic substance, an inorganic substance, a combination of organic and inorganic substances, or a pathogenic organism that, after discharge and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into an organism either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through the food chain, could, on the basis of information available to the board, cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological malfunctions (including malfunction in reproduction), or physical deformations in either organisms or offspring of the organisms.
"Pollutant limit" means a numerical value that describes the amount of a pollutant allowed per unit amount of biosolids (e.g., milligrams per kilogram of total solids), the amount of a pollutant that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., kilograms per hectare), or the volume of a material that can be applied to a unit area of land (e.g., gallons per acre).
"Pollutant management activity" means a treatment works with a potential or actual discharge to state waters, but which does not have a point source discharge to surface waters.
"Pollution" means such alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological properties of any state waters or soil as will, or is likely to, create a nuisance or render such waters or soil: (i) harmful or detrimental or injurious to the public health, safety, or welfare or to the health of animals, fish, or aquatic life; (ii) unsuitable despite reasonable treatment for use as present or possible future sources of public water supply; or (iii) unsuitable for recreational, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or other reasonable uses. Such alteration is also deemed to be pollution, if there occurs: (a) an alteration of the physical, chemical, or biological property of state waters or soil, or a discharge or a deposit of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes to state waters or soil by any owner which by itself is not sufficient to cause pollution, but which, in combination with such alteration of, or discharge, or deposit, to state waters or soil by other owners, is sufficient to cause pollution; (b) the discharge of untreated sewage by any owner into state waters or soil; or (c) the contravention of standards of air or water quality duly established by the board.
"Poultry grower" or "grower" means any person who owns or operates a confined poultry feeding operation.
"Poultry waste" means dry poultry litter and composted dead poultry.
"Poultry waste broker" or "broker" means a person who possesses or controls poultry waste that is not generated on an animal feeding operation under his operational control and transfers or hauls poultry waste to other persons. If the entity is defined as a broker they cannot be defined as a hauler for the purposes of this regulation.
"Poultry waste end-user" means any recipient of transferred poultry waste who stores or utilizes the waste as fertilizer, fuel, feedstock, livestock feed, or other beneficial end use for an operation under his control.
"Poultry waste hauler" or "hauler" means a person who provides transportation of transferred poultry waste from one entity to another and is not otherwise involved in the transfer or transaction of the waste nor responsible for determining the recipient of the waste. The responsibility of the recordkeeping and reporting remains with the entities to which the service was provided: grower, broker, and end-user.
"Primary sludge" means sewage sludge removed from primary settling tanks that is readily thickened by gravity thickeners.
"Privately owned treatment works (PVOTW)" means any sewage treatment works not publicly owned.
"Process" means a system, or an arrangement of equipment or other devices that remove from waste materials pollutants including, but not limited to, a treatment works or portions thereof.
"Public contact site" means land with a high potential for contact by the public. This includes, but is not limited to, public parks, ball fields, cemeteries, and golf courses.
"Publicly owned treatment works (POTW)" means any sewage treatment works that is owned by a state or municipality. Sewers, pipes, or other conveyances are included in this definition only if they convey wastewater to a POTW providing treatment.
"Public hearing" means a fact-finding proceeding held to afford interested persons an opportunity to submit factual data, views, and arguments to the board.
"Reclamation site" means drastically disturbed land that is reclaimed using biosolids. This includes, but is not limited to, strip mines and construction sites.
"Run-off" means rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains overland on any part of a land surface and runs off of the land surface.
"Schedule of compliance" means a schedule of remedial measures including an enforceable sequence of actions or operations leading to compliance with the federal Clean Water Act (33 USC 1251 et seq.), the law, and board regulations, standards and policies.
"Setback area" means the area of land between the boundary of the land application area and adjacent features where biosolids or other managed pollutants may not be land applied.
"Sewage" means the water-carried and non-water-carried human excrement, kitchen, laundry, shower, bath, or lavatory wastes, separately or together with such underground, surface, storm, and other water and liquid industrial wastes as may be present from residences, buildings, vehicles, industrial establishments, or other places.
"Sewage sludge" means any solid, semisolid, or liquid residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. Sewage sludge includes, but is not limited to, domestic septage; scum or solids removed in primary, secondary, or advanced wastewater treatment processes; and a material derived from sewage sludge. Sewage sludge does not include ash generated during the firing of sewage sludge in a sewage sludge incinerator or grit and screenings generated during preliminary treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works.
"Sewage sludge unit" means land on which only sewage sludge is placed for final disposal. This does not include land on which sewage sludge is either stored or treated. Land does not include surface waters.
"Sewage sludge use or disposal" means the collection, storage, treatment, transportation, processing, monitoring, use, or disposal of sewage sludge.
"Site" means the area of land within a defined boundary where an activity is proposed or permitted.
"Sludge" means solids, residues, and precipitates separated from or created by the unit processes of a treatment works.
"Sludge management" means the treatment, handling, transportation, storage, use, distribution, or disposal of sewage sludge.
"Specific oxygen uptake rate" or "SOUR" means the mass of oxygen consumed per unit time per mass of total solids (dry weight basis) in the sewage sludge.
"State waters" means all water on the surface or under the ground wholly or partially within or bordering the state or within its jurisdiction.
"State Water Control Law (law)" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.
"Store sewage sludge" or "storage of sewage sludge" means the placement of sewage sludge on land on which the sewage sludge remains for two years or less. This does not include the placement of sewage sludge on land for treatment.
"Substantial compliance" means designs and practices that do not exactly conform to the standards set forth in this chapter as contained in documents submitted pursuant to 9VAC25-32-60, but whose construction or implementation will not substantially affect health considerations or performance.
"Supernatant" means a liquid obtained from separation of suspended matter during sludge treatment or storage.
"Surface disposal site" means an area of land that contains one or more active sewage sludge units.
"Surface water" means:
1. All waters which are currently used, were used in the past, or may be susceptible to use in interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;
2. All interstate waters, including interstate "wetlands";
3. All other waters such as inter/intrastate lakes, rivers, streams (including intermittent streams), mudflats, sandflats, "wetlands," sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or foreign commerce including any such waters:
a. Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for recreational or other purposes;
b. From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign commerce; or
c. Which are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate commerce;
4. All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as surface waters of the United States under this definition;
5. Tributaries of waters identified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this definition;
6. The territorial sea; and
7. "Wetlands" adjacent to waters, other than waters that are themselves wetlands, identified in subdivisions 1 through 6 of this definition.
"Total solids" means the materials in sewage sludge that remain as residue when the sewage sludge is dried to 103°C to 105°C.
"Toxic pollutant" means any pollutant listed as toxic under § 307 (a)(1) of the CWA or, in the case of "sludge use or disposal practices," any pollutant identified in regulations implementing § 405 (d) of the CWA.
"Toxicity" means the inherent potential or capacity of a material to cause adverse effects in a living organism, including acute or chronic effects to aquatic life, detrimental effects on human health, or other adverse environmental effects.
"Treatment facility" means only those mechanical power driven devices necessary for the transmission and treatment of pollutants (e.g., pump stations, unit treatment processes).
"Treat sewage sludge" or "treatment of sewage sludge" means the preparation of sewage sludge for final use or disposal. This includes, but is not limited to, thickening, stabilization, and dewatering of sewage sludge. This does not include storage of sewage sludge.
"Treatment works" means either a federally owned, publicly owned, or privately owned device or system used to treat (including recycle and reclaim) either domestic sewage or a combination of domestic sewage and industrial waste of a liquid nature. Treatment works may include but are not limited to pumping, power, and other equipment and their appurtenances; septic tanks; and any works, including land, that are or will be (i) an integral part of the treatment process or (ii) used for ultimate disposal of residues or effluents resulting from such treatment. "Treatment works" does not include biosolids use on privately owned agricultural land.
"Twenty-five-year, 24-hour storm event" means the maximum 24-hour precipitation event with a probable recurrence interval of once in 25 years as established by the National Weather Service or appropriate regional or state rainfall probability information.
"Unstabilized solids" means organic materials in sewage sludge that have not been treated in either an aerobic or anaerobic treatment process.
"Upset" means an exceptional incident in which there is unintentional and temporary noncompliance with technology-based permit limitations because of factors beyond the permittee's reasonable control. An upset does not include noncompliance caused by operational error, improperly designed treatment facilities, inadequate treatment facilities, lack of preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation.
"Use" means to manage or recycle a processed waste product in a manner so as to derive a measurable benefit as a result of such management.
"Variance" means a conditional approval based on a waiver of specific regulations to a specific owner relative to a specific situation under documented conditions for a specified period of time.
"Vector attraction" means the characteristic of biosolids or sewage sludge that attracts rodents, flies, mosquitoes, or other organisms capable of transporting infectious agents.
"Vegetated buffer" means a permanent strip of dense perennial vegetation established parallel to the contours of and perpendicular to the dominant slope of the field for the purposes of slowing water runoff, enhancing water infiltration, and minimizing the risk of any potential nutrients or pollutants from leaving the field and reaching surface waters.
"Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permit" means a document issued by the board, pursuant to this chapter, authorizing pollutant management activities under prescribed conditions.
"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit" means a document issued by the board pursuant to 9VAC25-31, authorizing, under prescribed conditions, the potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface waters.
"Volatile solids" means the amount of the total solids in sewage sludge lost when the sewage sludge is combusted at 550°C in the presence of excess air.
"VPA application" means the standard form or forms approved by the board for applying for a VPA permit.
"Waste storage facility" means a (i) waste holding pond or tank used to store manure prior to land application, (ii) lagoon or treatment facility used to digest or reduce the solids or nutrients, or (iii) structure used to store manure or waste.
"300 animal units" means 300,000 pounds of live animal weight or the following numbers and types of animals:
a. 300 slaughter and feeder cattle;
b. 200 mature dairy cattle (whether milked or dry cows);
c. 750 swine each weighing over 25 kilograms (approximately 55 pounds);
d. 150 horses;
e. 3,000 sheep or lambs;
f. 16,500 turkeys;
g. 30,000 laying hens or broilers.
"Water quality standards" means the narrative statements for general requirements and numeric limits for specific requirements that describe the water quality necessary to meet and maintain reasonable and beneficial uses. Such standards are established by the board under § 62.1-44.15 (3a) of the Code of Virginia.
B. Generally used technical terms not defined in subsection A of this section or the department's latest definitions of technical terms as used to implement § 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia shall be defined in accordance with "Glossary-Water and Wastewater Control Engineering" published by the American Public Health Association (APHA), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF).
§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.
Derived from Virginia Register Volume 12, Issue 20, eff. July 24, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013; Volume 32, Issue 6, eff. December 2, 2015; Volume 32, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2016.