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Part III
Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan

9VAC25-151-80. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plans.

A Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) shall be developed and implemented for the facility covered by this permit. The SWPPP is intended to document the selection, design, and installation of control measures, including BMPs, to eliminate or reduce the pollutants in all stormwater discharges from the facility, and to meet applicable effluent limitations and water quality standards.

The SWPPP requirements of this general permit may be fulfilled, in part, by incorporating by reference other plans or documents such as a spill prevention control and countermeasure (SPCC) plan developed for the facility under 311 of the Clean Water Act, or best management practices (BMP) programs otherwise required for the facility, provided that the incorporated plan meets or exceeds the plan requirements of Part III B (Contents of the Plan). All plans incorporated by reference into the SWPPP become enforceable under this permit. If a plan incorporated by reference does not contain all of the required elements of the SWPPP of Part III B, the permittee shall develop the missing SWPPP elements and include them in the required plan.

A. Deadlines for plan preparation and compliance.

1. Facilities that were covered under the 2009 Industrial Stormwater General Permit. Owners of facilities that were covered under the 2009 Industrial Stormwater General Permit who are continuing coverage under this general permit shall update and implement any revisions to the SWPPP within 90 days of the board granting coverage under this permit.

2. New facilities, facilities previously covered by an expiring individual permit, and existing facilities not currently covered by a VPDES permit. Owners of new facilities, facilities previously covered by an expiring individual permit, and existing facilities not currently covered by a VPDES permit who elect to be covered under this general permit shall prepare and implement the SWPPP prior to submitting the registration statement.

3. New owners of existing facilities. Where the owner of an existing facility that is covered by this permit changes, the new owner of the facility shall update and implement any revisions to the SWPPP within 60 days of the ownership change.

4. Extensions. Upon a showing of good cause, the director may establish a later date in writing for the preparation and compliance with the SWPPP.

B. Contents of the plan. The contents of the SWPPP shall comply with the requirements listed below and those in the appropriate sectors of Part IV (9VAC25-151-90 et seq.). These requirements are cumulative. If a facility has colocated activities that are covered in more than one sector of Part IV, that facility's pollution prevention plan shall comply with the requirements listed in all applicable sectors. The following requirements are applicable to all SWPPPs developed under this general permit. The plan shall include, at a minimum, the following items:

1. Pollution prevention team. The plan shall identify the staff individuals by name or title who comprise the facility's stormwater pollution prevention team. The pollution prevention team is responsible for assisting the facility or plant manager in developing, implementing, maintaining, revising and ensuring compliance with the facility's SWPPP. Specific responsibilities of each staff individual on the team shall be identified and listed.

2. Site description. The SWPPP shall include the following:

a. Activities at the facility. A description of the nature of the industrial activities at the facility.

b. General location map. A general location map (e.g., USGS quadrangle or other map) with enough detail to identify the location of the facility and the receiving waters within one mile of the facility.

c. Site map. A site map identifying the following:

(1) The boundaries of the property and the size of the property (in acres);

(2) The location and extent of significant structures and impervious surfaces (roofs, paved areas and other impervious areas);

(3) Locations of all stormwater conveyances including ditches, pipes, swales, and inlets, and the directions of stormwater flow (use arrows to show which ways stormwater will flow);

(4) Locations of all existing structural and source control measures, including BMPs;

(5) Locations of all surface water bodies, including wetlands;

(6) Locations of potential pollutant sources identified under Part III B 3;

(7) Locations where significant spills or leaks identified under Part III B 3 c have occurred;

(8) Locations of the following activities where such activities are exposed to precipitation: fueling stations; vehicle and equipment maintenance and cleaning areas; loading and unloading areas; locations used for the treatment, storage or disposal of wastes; liquid storage tanks; processing and storage areas; access roads, rail cars and tracks; transfer areas for substances in bulk; and machinery;

(9) Locations of stormwater outfalls and an approximate outline of the area draining to each outfall, and location of municipal storm sewer systems, if the stormwater from the facility discharges to them. Outfalls shall be numbered using a unique numerical identification code for each outfall (e.g., Outfall No. 001, No. 002, etc.);

(10) Location and description of all nonstormwater discharges;

(11) Location of any storage piles containing salt used for deicing or other commercial or industrial purposes;

(12) Locations and sources of runon to the site from adjacent property, where the runon contains significant quantities of pollutants; and

(13) Locations of all stormwater monitoring points.

d. Receiving waters and wetlands. The name of all surface waters receiving discharges from the site, including intermittent streams, dry sloughs, and arroyos. Provide a description of wetland sites that may receive discharges from the facility. If the facility discharges through a municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4), identify the MS4 operator, and the receiving water to which the MS4 discharges.

3. Summary of potential pollutant sources. The plan shall identify each separate area at the facility where industrial materials or activities are exposed to stormwater. Industrial materials or activities include, but are not limited to: material handling equipment or activities, industrial machinery, raw materials, industrial production and processes, intermediate products, byproducts, final products, and waste products. Material handling activities include, but are not limited to: the storage, loading and unloading, transportation, disposal, or conveyance of any raw material, intermediate product, final product or waste product. For each separate area identified, the description shall include:

a. Activities in the area. A list of the industrial activities exposed to stormwater (e.g., material storage, equipment fueling and cleaning, cutting steel beams).

b. Pollutants. A list of the pollutant(s) or pollutant constituents (e.g., crankcase oil, zinc, sulfuric acid, cleaning solvents, etc.) associated with each industrial activity. The pollutant list shall include all significant materials handled, treated, stored or disposed that have been exposed to stormwater in the three years prior to the date this SWPPP was prepared or amended. The list shall include any hazardous substances or oil at the facility.

c. Spills and leaks. The SWPPP shall clearly identify areas where potential spills and leaks that can contribute pollutants to stormwater discharges can occur and their corresponding outfalls. The plan shall include a list of significant spills and leaks of toxic or hazardous pollutants that actually occurred at exposed areas, or that drained to a stormwater conveyance during the three-year period prior to the date this SWPPP was prepared or amended. The list shall be updated if significant spills or leaks occur in exposed areas of the facility during the term of the permit. Significant spills and leaks include, but are not limited to, releases of oil or hazardous substances in excess of reportable quantities.

d. Sampling data. The plan shall include a summary of existing stormwater discharge sampling data taken at the facility. The summary shall include, at a minimum, any data collected during the previous permit term.

4. Stormwater controls.

a. Control measures shall be implemented for all the areas identified in Part III B 3 (summary of potential pollutant sources) to prevent or control pollutants in stormwater discharges from the facility. Regulated stormwater discharges from the facility include stormwater runon that commingles with stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity at the facility. The SWPPP shall describe the type, location and implementation of all control measures for each area where industrial materials or activities are exposed to stormwater.

Selection of control measures shall take into consideration:

(1) That preventing stormwater from coming into contact with polluting materials is generally more effective, and less costly, than trying to remove pollutants from stormwater;

(2) Control measures generally shall be used in combination with each other for most effective water quality protection;

(3) Assessing the type and quantity of pollutants, including their potential to impact receiving water quality, is critical to designing effective control measures;

(4) That minimizing impervious areas at the facility can reduce runoff and improve groundwater recharge and stream base flows in local streams (however, care must be taken to avoid ground water contamination);

(5) Flow attenuation by use of open vegetated swales and natural depressions can reduce in-stream impacts of erosive flows;

(6) Conservation or restoration of riparian buffers will help protect streams from stormwater runoff and improve water quality; and

(7) Treatment interceptors (e.g., swirl separators and sand filters) may be appropriate in some instances to minimize the discharge of pollutants.

b. Nonnumeric technology-based effluent limits. The permittee shall implement the following types of control measures to prevent and control pollutants in the stormwater discharges from the facility, unless it can be demonstrated and documented that such controls are not relevant to the discharges (e.g., there are no storage piles containing salt).

(1) Good housekeeping. The permittee shall keep clean all exposed areas of the facility that are potential sources of pollutants to stormwater discharges. Typical problem areas include areas around trash containers, storage areas, loading docks, and vehicle fueling and maintenance areas. The plan shall include a schedule for regular pickup and disposal of waste materials, along with routine inspections for leaks and conditions of drums, tanks and containers.

(2) Eliminating and minimizing exposure. To the extent practicable, manufacturing, processing, and material storage areas (including loading and unloading, storage, disposal, cleaning, maintenance, and fueling operations) shall be located inside, or protected by a storm-resistant covering to prevent exposure to rain, snow, snowmelt, and runoff. Note: Eliminating exposure at all industrial areas may make the facility eligible for the "Conditional Exclusion for No Exposure" provision of 9VAC25-31-120 E, thereby eliminating the need to have a permit.

(3) Preventive maintenance. The permittee shall have a preventive maintenance program that includes regular inspection, testing, maintenance and repairing of all industrial equipment and systems to avoid situations that could result in leaks, spills and other releases of pollutants in stormwater discharged from the facility. This program is in addition to the specific control measure maintenance required under Part III C (Maintenance of control measures).

(4) Spill prevention and response procedures. The plan shall describe the procedures that will be followed for preventing and responding to spills and leaks, including:

(a) Preventive measures, such as barriers between material storage and traffic areas, secondary containment provisions, and procedures for material storage and handling;

(b) Response procedures, including notification of appropriate facility personnel, emergency agencies, and regulatory agencies, and procedures for stopping, containing and cleaning up spills. Measures for cleaning up hazardous material spills or leaks shall be consistent with applicable RCRA regulations at 40 CFR Part 264 and 40 CFR Part 265. Employees who may cause, detect or respond to a spill or leak shall be trained in these procedures and have necessary spill response equipment available. If possible, one of these individuals shall be a member of the Pollution Prevention Team;

(c) Procedures for plainly labeling containers (e.g., "used oil," "spent solvents," "fertilizers and pesticides," etc.) that could be susceptible to spillage or leakage to encourage proper handling and facilitate rapid response if spills or leaks occur; and

(d) Contact information for individuals and agencies that must be notified in the event of a spill shall be included in the SWPPP, and in other locations where it will be readily available.

(5) Salt storage piles or piles containing salt. Storage piles of salt or piles containing salt used for deicing or other commercial or industrial purposes shall be enclosed or covered to prevent exposure to precipitation. The permittee shall implement appropriate measures (e.g., good housekeeping, diversions, containment) to minimize exposure resulting from adding to or removing materials from the pile. All salt storage piles shall be located on an impervious surface. All runoff from the pile, and runoff that comes in contact with salt, including under drain systems, shall be collected and contained within a bermed basin lined with concrete or other impermeable materials, or within an underground storage tank or tanks, or within an above ground storage tank or tanks, or disposed of through a sanitary sewer (with the permission of the owner of the treatment facility). A combination of any or all of these methods may be used. In no case shall salt contaminated stormwater be allowed to discharge directly to the ground or to surface waters.

(6) Employee training. The permittee shall implement a stormwater employee training program for the facility. The SWPPP shall include a schedule for all types of necessary training, and shall document all training sessions and the employees who received the training. Training shall be provided for all employees who work in areas where industrial materials or activities are exposed to stormwater, and for employees who are responsible for implementing activities identified in the SWPPP (e.g., inspectors, maintenance personnel, etc.). The training shall cover the components and goals of the SWPPP, and include such topics as spill response, good housekeeping, material management practices, control measure operation and maintenance, etc. The SWPPP shall include a summary of any training performed.

(7) Sediment and erosion control. The plan shall identify areas at the facility that, due to topography, land disturbance (e.g., construction, landscaping, site grading), or other factors, have a potential for soil erosion. The permittee shall identify and implement structural, vegetative, and stabilization control measures to prevent or control on-site and off-site erosion and sedimentation. Flow velocity dissipation devices shall be placed at discharge locations and along the length of any outfall channel if the flows would otherwise create erosive conditions.

(8) Management of runoff. The plan shall describe the stormwater runoff management practices (i.e., permanent structural control measures) for the facility. These types of control measures are typically used to divert, infiltrate, reuse, or otherwise reduce pollutants in stormwater discharges from the site.

Structural control measures may require a separate permit under 404 of the CWA and the Virginia Water Protection Permit Program Regulation (9VAC25-210) before installation begins.

(9) Dust suppression and vehicle tracking of industrial materials. The permittee shall implement control measures to minimize the generation of dust and off-site tracking of raw, final, or waste materials. Stormwater collected on-site may be used for the purposes of dust suppression or for spraying stockpiles. Potable water, well water, and uncontaminated reuse water may also be used for this purpose. There shall be no direct discharge to surface waters from dust suppression activities or as a result of spraying stockpiles.

5. Routine facility inspections. Facility personnel who possess the knowledge and skills to assess conditions and activities that could impact stormwater quality at the facility and who can also evaluate the effectiveness of control measures shall regularly inspect all areas of the facility where industrial materials or activities are exposed to stormwater. These inspections are in addition to, or as part of, the comprehensive site evaluation required under Part III E. At least one member of the pollution prevention team shall participate in the routine facility inspections.

The inspection frequency shall be specified in the plan based upon a consideration of the level of industrial activity at the facility, but shall be at a minimum quarterly unless more frequent intervals are specified elsewhere in the permit or written approval is received from the department for less frequent intervals. Inspections shall be performed during periods when the facility is in operation. At least once each calendar year, the routine facility inspection shall be conducted during a period when a stormwater discharge is occurring.

The requirement for routine facility inspections is waived for facilities that have maintained an active VEEP E3/E4 status. Note: Certain sectors in Part IV have additional inspection requirements. If the VEEP E3/E4 waiver language is not included for the sector specific inspections, these additional inspection requirements may not be waived.

Any deficiencies in the implementation of the SWPPP that are found shall be corrected as soon as practicable, but not later than within 30 days of the inspection, unless permission for a later date is granted in writing by the director. The results of the inspections shall be documented in the SWPPP and shall include at a minimum:

a. The inspection date and time;

b. The name(s) and signature(s) of the inspector(s);

c. Weather information and a description of any discharges occurring at the time of the inspection;

d. Any previously unidentified discharges of pollutants from the site;

e. Any control measures needing maintenance or repairs;

f. Any failed control measures that need replacement;

g. Any incidents of noncompliance observed; and

h. Any additional control measures needed to comply with the permit requirements.

C. Maintenance. The SWPPP shall include a description of procedures and a regular schedule for preventive maintenance of all control measures, and shall include a description of the back-up practices that are in place should a runoff event occur while a control measure is off-line. The effectiveness of nonstructural control measures shall also be maintained by appropriate means (e.g., spill response supplies available and personnel trained, etc.).

All control measures identified in the SWPPP shall be maintained in effective operating condition and shall be observed at least annually during active operation (i.e., during a stormwater runoff event) to ensure that they are functioning correctly. Where discharge locations are inaccessible, nearby downstream locations shall be observed. The observations shall be documented in the SWPPP.

If site inspections required by Part III B 5 (Routine facility inspections) or Part III E (Comprehensive site compliance evaluation) identify control measures that are not operating effectively, repairs or maintenance shall be performed before the next anticipated storm event. If maintenance prior to the next anticipated storm event is not possible, maintenance shall be scheduled and accomplished as soon as practicable. In the interim, back-up measures shall be employed and documented in the SWPPP until repairs or maintenance is complete. Documentation shall be kept with the SWPPP of maintenance and repairs of control measures, including the date(s) of regular maintenance, date(s) of discovery of areas in need of repair or replacement, date(s) for repairs, date(s) that the control measure(s) returned to full function, and the justification for any extended maintenance or repair schedules.

D. Nonstormwater discharges.

1. Discharges of certain sources of nonstormwater are allowable discharges under this permit (see Part I B, Special Condition No. 1 - Allowable nonstormwater discharges). All other nonstormwater discharges are not authorized and shall be either eliminated or covered under a separate VPDES permit.

2. Annual outfall evaluation for unauthorized discharges.

a. The SWPPP shall include documentation that all stormwater outfalls associated with industrial activity have been evaluated annually for the presence of unauthorized discharges (i.e., discharges other than stormwater; the authorized nonstormwater discharges described in Part I B, Special Condition No. 1; or discharges covered under a separate VPDES permit, other than this permit). The documentation shall include:

(1) The date of the evaluation;

(2) A description of the evaluation criteria used;

(3) A list of the outfalls or on-site drainage points that were directly observed during the evaluation;

(4) A description of the results of the evaluation for the presence of unauthorized discharges; and

(5) The actions taken to eliminate unauthorized discharges if any were identified (i.e., a floor drain was sealed, a sink drain was rerouted to sanitary, or a VPDES permit application was submitted for a cooling water discharge).

b. The permittee may request in writing to the department that the facility be allowed to conduct annual outfall evaluations at 20% of the outfalls. If approved, the permittee shall evaluate at least 20% of the facility outfalls each year on a rotating basis such that all facility outfalls will be evaluated during the period of coverage under this permit.

E. Comprehensive site compliance evaluation. The permittee shall conduct comprehensive site compliance evaluations at least once each calendar year after coverage under the permit begins. The evaluations shall be done by qualified personnel who possess the knowledge and skills to assess conditions and activities that could impact stormwater quality at the facility, and who can also evaluate the effectiveness of control measures. The personnel conducting the evaluations may be either facility employees or outside personnel hired by the facility.

1. Scope of the compliance evaluation. Evaluations shall include all areas where industrial materials or activities are exposed to stormwater, as identified in Part III B 3. The personnel shall evaluate:

a. Industrial materials, residue or trash that may have or could come into contact with stormwater;

b. Leaks or spills from industrial equipment, drums, barrels, tanks or other containers that have occurred within the past three years;

c. Off-site tracking of industrial or waste materials or sediment where vehicles enter or exit the site;

d. Tracking or blowing of raw, final, or waste materials from areas of no exposure to exposed areas;

e. Evidence of, or the potential for, pollutants entering the drainage system;

f. Evidence of pollutants discharging to surface waters at all facility outfalls, and the condition of and around the outfall, including flow dissipation measures to prevent scouring;

g. Review of stormwater related training performed, inspections completed, maintenance performed, quarterly visual examinations, and effective operation of control measures, including BMPs;

h. A summary of the annual outfall evaluation for unauthorized discharges required by subdivision D 2 of this section.

i. Results of both visual and any analytical monitoring done during the past year shall be taken into consideration during the evaluation.

2. Based on the results of the evaluation, the SWPPP shall be modified as necessary (e.g., show additional controls on the map required by Part III B 2 c; revise the description of controls required by Part III B 4 to include additional or modified control measures designed to correct problems identified). Revisions to the SWPPP shall be completed within 30 days following the evaluation, unless permission for a later date is granted in writing by the director. If existing control measures need to be modified or if additional control measures are necessary, implementation shall be completed before the next anticipated storm event, if practicable, but not more than 60 days after completion of the comprehensive site evaluation, unless permission for a later date is granted in writing by the department.

3. Compliance evaluation report. A report shall be written summarizing the scope of the evaluation, name(s) of personnel making the evaluation, the date of the evaluation, and all observations relating to the implementation of the SWPPP, including elements stipulated in Part III E 1 (a) through (i) above. Observations shall include such things as: the location(s) of discharges of pollutants from the site; location(s) of previously unidentified sources of pollutants; location(s) of control measures that need to be maintained or repaired; location(s) of failed control measures that need replacement; and location(s) where additional control measures are needed. The report shall identify any incidents of noncompliance that were observed. Where a report does not identify any incidents of noncompliance, the report shall contain a certification that the facility is in compliance with the SWPPP and this permit. The report shall be signed in accordance with Part II K and maintained with the SWPPP.

4. Where compliance evaluation schedules overlap with routine inspections required under Part III B 5 the annual compliance evaluation may be used as one of the routine inspections.

F. Signature and plan review.

1. Signature and location. The SWPPP, including revisions to the SWPPP to document any corrective actions taken as required by Part I A 6, shall be signed in accordance with Part II K, dated, and retained on-site at the facility covered by this permit in accordance with Part II B 2. All other changes to the SWPPP, and other permit compliance documentation, shall be signed and dated by the person preparing the change or documentation. For inactive facilities, the plan may be kept at the nearest office of the permittee.

2. Availability. The permittee shall retain a copy of the current SWPPP required by this permit at the facility, and it shall be immediately available to the department, EPA, or the operator of an MS4 receiving discharges from the site at the time of an on-site inspection or upon request.

3. Required modifications. The permittee shall modify the SWPPP whenever necessary to address all corrective actions required by Part I A 6 a (Data exceeding benchmark concentration values) or Part I A 6 b (Corrective actions). Changes to the SWPPP shall be made in accordance with the corrective action deadlines in Part I A 6 a and Part I A 6 b, and shall be signed and dated in accordance with Part III F 1.

The director may notify the permittee at any time that the SWPPP, control measures, or other components of the facility's stormwater program do not meet one or more of the requirements of this permit. The notification shall identify specific provisions of the permit that are not being met, and may include required modifications to the stormwater program, additional monitoring requirements, and special reporting requirements. The permittee shall make any required changes to the SWPPP within 60 days of receipt of such notification, unless permission for a later date is granted in writing by the director, and shall submit a written certification to the director that the requested changes have been made.

G. Maintaining an updated SWPPP.

1. The permittee shall review and amend the SWPPP as appropriate whenever:

a. There is construction or a change in design, operation, or maintenance at the facility that has a significant effect on the discharge, or the potential for the discharge, of pollutants from the facility;

b. Routine inspections or compliance evaluations determine that there are deficiencies in the control measures, including BMPs;

c. Inspections by local, state, or federal officials determine that modifications to the SWPPP are necessary;

d. There is a spill, leak or other release at the facility;

e. There is an unauthorized discharge from the facility; or

f. The department notifies the permittee that a TMDL has been developed and applies to the permitted facility, consistent with Part I B, special condition 7 (Discharges to waters subject to TMDL wasteload allocations).

2. SWPPP modifications shall be made within 30 calendar days after discovery, observation or event requiring a SWPPP modification. Implementation of new or modified control measures (distinct from regular preventive maintenance of existing control measures described in Part III C) shall be initiated before the next storm event if possible, but no later than 60 days after discovery, or as otherwise provided or approved by the director. The amount of time taken to modify a control measure or implement additional control measures shall be documented in the SWPPP.

3. If the SWPPP modification is based on a release or unauthorized discharge, include a description and date of the release, the circumstances leading to the release, actions taken in response to the release, and measures to prevent the recurrence of such releases. Unauthorized releases and discharges are subject to the reporting requirements of Part II G of this permit.

Statutory Authority

62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, and 124.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 15, Issue 9, eff. June 30, 1999; amended, Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 16, eff. July 1, 2004; Volume 25, Issue 19, eff. June 24, 2009; Volume 30, Issue 11, eff. July 1, 2014; Errata, 31:3 VA.R. 194 October 6, 2014.

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