9VAC25-151-190. Sector L - Landfills, land application sites and open dumps.
A. Discharges covered under this section. The requirements listed under this section apply to stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity from waste disposal at landfills, land application sites, and open dumps that receive or have received industrial wastes (Industrial Activity Code "LF"), including sites subject to regulation under Subtitle D of RCRA. Landfills, land application sites, and open dumps that have stormwater discharges from other types of industrial activities such as vehicle maintenance, truck washing, and recycling may be subject to additional requirements specified elsewhere in this permit. This permit does not cover discharges from landfills that receive only municipal wastes. Landfills (including landfills in "post-closure care") that have been properly closed and capped in accordance with 9VAC20-81-160 and 9VAC20-81-170 and have no significant materials exposed to stormwater do not require this permit. Landfills closed in accordance with regulations or permits in effect prior to December 21, 1988, do not require this permit, unless significant materials are exposed to stormwater.
B. Special conditions. Prohibition of nonstormwater discharges. In addition to the general nonstormwater prohibition in Part I B 1, the following discharges are not covered by this permit: leachate, gas collection condensate, drained free liquids, contaminated ground water, laboratory wastewater, and contact washwater from washing truck, equipment, and railcar exteriors and surface areas that have come in direct contact with solid waste at the landfill facility.
"Contaminated stormwater" means stormwater that comes in direct contact with landfill wastes, the waste handling and treatment areas, or landfill wastewater. Some areas of a landfill that may produce contaminated stormwater include, but are not limited to, the working face of an active landfill; the areas around wastewater treatment operations; trucks, equipment, or machinery that has been in direct contact with the waste; and waste dumping areas.
"Drained free liquids" means aqueous wastes drained from waste containers (e.g., drums, etc.) prior to landfilling.
"Landfill wastewater" as defined in 40 CFR Part 445 (Landfills Point Source Category) means all wastewater associated with, or produced by, landfilling activities except for sanitary wastewater, noncontaminated stormwater, contaminated groundwater, and wastewater from recovery pumping wells. Landfill wastewater includes, but is not limited to, leachate, gas collection condensate, drained free liquids, laboratory derived wastewater, contaminated stormwater and contact washwater from washing truck, equipment, and railcar exteriors and surface areas that have come in direct contact with solid waste at the landfill facility.
"Leachate" means liquid that has passed through or emerged from solid waste and contains soluble, suspended, or miscible materials removed from such waste.
"Noncontaminated stormwater" means stormwater that does not come into direct contact with landfill wastes, the waste handling and treatment areas, or landfill wastewater as defined above. Noncontaminated stormwater includes stormwater that flows off the cap, intermediate cover, or final cover of the landfill.
"Open dump" means a site on which any solid waste is placed, discharged, deposited, injected, dumped, or spilled so as to present a threat of a release of harmful substances into the environment or present a hazard to human health. Such a site is subject to the open dump criteria in 9VAC20-81-45.
D. Stormwater pollution prevention plan requirements. In addition to the requirements in Part III, the SWPPP shall include, at a minimum, the following items.
1. Site description.
a. Site map. The site map shall identify where any of the following may be exposed to precipitation or surface runoff: active and closed landfill cells or trenches; active and closed land application areas; locations where open dumping is occurring or has occurred; locations of any known leachate springs or other areas where uncontrolled leachate may commingle with runoff; and leachate collection and handling systems.
b. Summary of potential pollutant sources. The SWPPP shall also include a description of potential pollutant sources associated with any of the following: fertilizer, herbicide, and pesticide application; earth and soil moving; waste hauling and loading and unloading; outdoor storage of significant materials including daily, interim and final cover material stockpiles as well as temporary waste storage areas; exposure of active and inactive landfill and land application areas; uncontrolled leachate flows; and failure or leaks from leachate collection and treatment systems.
2. Stormwater controls.
a. Preventive maintenance program. As part of the preventive maintenance program, the permittee shall maintain: all elements of leachate collection and treatment systems to prevent commingling of leachate with stormwater and the integrity and effectiveness of any intermediate or final cover (including making repairs to the cover as necessary), to minimize the effects of settlement, sinking, and erosion.
b. Routine facility inspections.
(1) Inspections of active sites. Operating landfills, open dumps, and land application sites shall be inspected at least once every seven days. Qualified personnel shall inspect areas of landfills that have not yet been finally stabilized, active land application areas, areas used for storage of materials or wastes that are exposed to precipitation, stabilization and structural control measures, leachate collection and treatment systems, and locations where equipment and waste trucks enter and exit the site. Erosion and sediment control measures shall be observed to ensure they are operating correctly. For stabilized sites and areas where land application has been completed, or where the climate is seasonally arid (annual rainfall averages from 0 to 10 inches) or semi-arid (annual rainfall averages from 10 to 20 inches), inspections shall be conducted at least once every month.
(2) Inspections of inactive sites. Inactive landfills, open dumps, and land application sites shall be inspected at least quarterly. Qualified personnel shall inspect landfill (or open dump) stabilization and structural erosion control measures and leachate collection and treatment systems, and all closed land application areas.
c. Recordkeeping and internal reporting procedures. Landfill and open dump owners shall provide for a tracking system for the types of wastes disposed of in each cell or trench of a landfill or open dump. Land application site owners shall track the types and quantities of wastes applied in specific areas.
d. Annual outfall evaluation for unauthorized discharges. The evaluation shall also be conducted for the presence of leachate and vehicle washwater.
e. Sediment and erosion control plan. Landfill and open dump owners shall provide for temporary stabilization of materials stockpiled for daily, intermediate, and final cover. Stabilization practices to consider include, but are not limited to, temporary seeding, mulching, and placing geotextiles on the inactive portions of the stockpiles. Landfill and open dump owners shall provide for temporary stabilization of inactive areas of the landfill or open dump which have an intermediate cover but no final cover. Landfill and open dump owners shall provide for temporary stabilization of any landfill or open dumping areas which have received a final cover until vegetation has established itself. Land application site owners shall also stabilize areas where waste application has been completed until vegetation has been established.
f. Comprehensive site compliance evaluation. Areas contributing to a stormwater discharge associated with industrial activities at landfills, open dumps and land application sites shall be evaluated for evidence of, or the potential for, pollutants entering the drainage system.
E. Numeric effluent limitations. As set forth at 40 CFR Part 445 Subpart B, the numeric limitations in Table 190-1 apply to contaminated stormwater discharges from municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) that have not been closed in accordance with 40 CFR 258.60, and contaminated stormwater discharges from those landfills that are subject to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 257 (these include CDD landfills (also known as C&D landfills), and industrial landfills) except for discharges from any of the following facilities:
1. Landfills operated in conjunction with other industrial or commercial operations when the landfill only receives wastes generated by the industrial or commercial operation directly associated with the landfill;
2. Landfills operated in conjunction with other industrial or commercial operations when the landfill receives wastes generated by the industrial or commercial operation directly associated with the landfill and also receives other wastes provided the other wastes received for disposal are generated by a facility that is subject to the same provisions in 40 CFR Subchapter N as the industrial or commercial operation or the other wastes received are of similar nature to the wastes generated by the industrial or commercial operation;
3. Landfills operated in conjunction with centralized waste treatment (CWT) facilities subject to 40 CFR Part 437 so long as the CWT facility commingles the landfill wastewater with other nonlandfill wastewater for discharge. A landfill directly associated with a CWT facility is subject to this part if the CWT facility discharges landfill wastewater separately from other CWT wastewater or commingles the wastewater from its landfill only with wastewater from other landfills; or
4. Landfills operated in conjunction with other industrial or commercial operations when the landfill receives wastes from public service activities so long as the company owning the landfill does not receive a fee or other remuneration for the disposal service.
F. Benchmark monitoring and reporting requirements. Landfill, land application, and open dump sites are required to monitor their stormwater discharges for the pollutants of concern listed in Table 190-2. These benchmark monitoring cutoff concentrations apply to stormwater discharges associated with industrial activity other than contaminated stormwater discharges from landfills subject to the numeric effluent limitations set forth in Table 190-1.
§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the federal Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, and 124.
Derived from Virginia Register Volume 15, Issue 9, eff. June 30, 1999; amended, Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 16, eff. July 1, 2004; Volume 25, Issue 19, eff. June 24, 2009; Volume 27, Issue 26, eff. September 28, 2011; Volume 30, Issue 11, eff. July 1, 2014.